The Quaker Bibliographic World of

Francis Daniel Pastorius' Bee Hive


Alfred L. Brophy


J. William Frost generously critiqued this essay and encouraged its publication. I am also grateful to Bernard Bailyn, Mary Sarah Bilder, Eva Gasser, Werner Sollors, and an anonymous referee, for their comments and to the Woodrow Wilson and the Robert S. Kerr Foundations for financial support. Grant Lucky and Fran Deathe helped me track down citations.

The Quaker Bibliographic World of

Francis Daniel Pastorius' Bee Hive

What Quaker tracts and treatises were available in the Delaware Valley in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century? How did the published Quaker writings in early Pennsylvania compare in number and subject matter with the universe of published Quaker writings? What do their nature and content suggest about the literary, religious, political, and legal interests of early Pennsylvanians? One wishing to explore the nature of print culture in colonial America is interested in the answers.(1)

Francis Daniel Pastorius, who emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1683, offers assistance in developing answers to those questions. Pastorius' life touched great events in Europe and America. Born in 1651 in Sommerhausen, Germany, he was the son of a magistrate of that city. From 1668 to 1676 he was educated in law at the University of Altdorf, interspersed with time at the Universities of Jena, Regensburg, Strassburg, and perhaps Basal. Upon graduation from Altdorf in 1676, he began practicing law in Windsheim. Because of his interest in the Pietist movement centered around Frankfurt, he moved there in 1678.(2) When the Frankfurt Pietists formed the Frankfurt Land Company to purchase land and settle Pennsylvania, Pastorius felt "a desire in [his] Soul to continue in their Society, and with them to lead a quiet, godly and honest life."(3) He emigrated to Pennsylvania in the spring of 1683 and took on important roles in Pennsylvania, serving as a justice of the peace for Philadelphia County in 1684, 1685, and 1693, as a member of the General Assembly in 1687 and 1691, a court clerk in Philadelphia County from 1696 to 1701, and a school teacher for many years.(4)

Pastorius also wrote and published extensively. His letters home, detailing the benefits of life in Pennsylvania, were published in 1701 in Frankfurt; a primer used by students in his school was published in 1698; a pamphlet on Pennsylvania politics was published in 1697.(5) Other writings, including a protest against slavery, treatises on law, medicine, and agriculture, a volume of poetry, and several other volumes that have since been lost, remained unpublished, as did his commonplace book, which he called his "Hive or Bee Stock." Historians call it the Bee Hive.(6)

The Bee Hive, which is now in the rare book room of the University of Pennsylvania's Van Pelt Library, has shed substantial light on Pastorius' thinking.(7) He began writing the Bee Hive in 1696 and seems to have added to it with some frequency until near his death in the winter of 1719-20. The Bee Hive, which runs to several hundred folio pages, contains nearly four hundred stanzas of poetry; hundreds of aphorisms, largely from the Bible; a dictionary with several hundred entries defining terms of religion, law, and natural science, among others; and more than two thousand individual entries--"honey combs"--of Pastorius' thought. One interested in topics such as Quakers, atheism, piety, usury, debt, justice, magistrates, lawyers, equity, equality, freeholder, property, tyranny, nobility, politick, rebellion, bigamy, polygamy, or hundreds of other topics, can look under those headings in the Bee Hive and find nuggets of Pastorius' thought, sometimes in verse. Sometimes the thoughts are original; more often they are collected from other writers. In the latter cases, Pastorius cites the authors from whom he took the ideas.

Pastorius' meticulous recording of the authors from whom he drew ideas makes the Bee Hive useful for one interested in the range of books available in early Pennsylvania. The Bee Hive includes a bibliography that contains the author and title of every book, treatise, pamphlet, and broadside drawn upon in its compilation, as well as a number of other books Pastorius apparently consulted but did not use in the Bee Hive. When Pastorius drew upon a work for ideas in the Bee Hive he marked it with an asterisk in the bibliography. His primary motivation for compiling the bibliography was to guide his sons, John and Henry, in their reading. A poem addressed to them introduced the bibliography:

At leasure hours and Candle-light,

When others play, or lose their Sight,

Read ye these Books I here have set,

Or other good ones you can get.

Another motivating factor was Pastorius' desire to promote knowledge about the works. In the introduction to the bibliography, he wrote that he recorded the "authors out of which this . . . Hive is collected" because "ingenuum est fateri per quos profeceris." The phrase, which may be translated as "true genius is to acknowledge those through whom you have advanced," also appeared on the title page of his legal treatise, The Young Country Clerk's Collection, itself a compilation of forms.(8) Pastorius' repeated use of the phrase suggests a concern for pointing readers towards works that helped to form his ideas.

One wonders how Pastorius obtained the books on such a lengthy list. In some cases he owned the works he cited.(9) In most instances, however, he borrowed them. Beside the entry for Robert L'Strange's edition of Seneca's Morals, for example, Pastorius wrote "being lent to me but for a short time, I digested only the preface, Post-script and Afterthought thereof." The lending library established by the Philadelphia monthly meeting in 1682 and the pamphlet war between George Keith's supporters and his opponents suggest that there was active circulation and discussion of books.(10) The full Bee Hive bibliography includes about one thousand entries.(11) Pastorius divided it into books written by Quakers and by non-Quakers. The Appendix to this Note prints the list of books by Quakers; it marks with an asterisk those works that Pastorius marked in his bibliography as those that he had drawn upon.(12)

Pastorius' books have attracted the attention of several historians over the past ninety years. When Professor Michael Learned published his biography of Pastorius in 1908, he included a list of the books Pastorius owned (rather than consulted). The list, which includes a substantial number of books printed in Europe, spans a wide array of topics, from religion and horticulture, through law and politics. Recently, Lyman W. Riley transcribed and provided modern bibliographic references for the publications cited by Pastorius in the Bee Hive.(13) The present project is the first printed bibliography of Pastorius' Quaker books.

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Pastorius' list of Quaker works, which contains nearly four hundred entries, is exciting for several reasons. First, it identifies a wide variety of Quaker writings that were present in early Pennsylvania. Especially for people who were born in Pennsylvania, the books provided a substitute for memories of life in England. In light of Richard Vann's hypothesis that Quakerism was "made in America"--that emigrants from Europe were less important in developing the character of American Quakerism than were those born in America--the printed recollections of sufferings and the well-articulated defenses of Quaker thought probably helped to sustain the Quaker understanding of the world--to sustain, as Perry Miller might have said, the Quaker cosmology.(14)

Second, the bibliography allows comparison of the books readily available in Pennsylvania with the universe of Quaker publications. Given Pastorius' attempts at comprehensiveness, the list is suggestive of the total body of Quaker works that were readily available in early Pennsylvania and thus gives an idea of which Quaker works helped to shape the understanding of Quaker doctrine and which ones, because they did not exist in early Pennsylvania, could not exercise direct influence. Hugh Barbour and Arthur Roberts report that there were 3,759 published Quaker writings before 1700; Pastorius' 271 entries for works written before 1700 thus represent about seven percent of the corpus of Quaker publications to that time.(15) Like Quaker writings generally, almost all works in Pastorius' list were printed in London. One was printed before 1652; more than one-third (143) of the 379 works in the bibliography were printed from 1656 to 1664, with the remainder distributed rather evenly until 1703, when the numbers drop off. The latest one was printed in 1717. Table 1 shows the distribution of dates of publication. The list testifies to a "unified tranatlantic Quaker culture" between Pennsylvania and England in the late seventeenth century.(16)

What, then, of the contents of Pastorius' bibliography? The books may be divided into several broad categories. There are extended treatises recording the lives and writings of such leaders as George Fox, William Penn, Edward Burrough, Josiah Coale, Richard Hubberthorne, Isaac Penington, and James Naylor. Those weighty volumes articulated the major themes of Quakerism and might serve to instill a quiet, introspective Pietism and a concern for the abuses suffered by Quakers in England. Pastorius was particularly fond of George Fox's Journal, the most heavily cited volume in the Bee Hive other than the Bible. William Penn's No Cross, No Crown, which itself collected writings from antiquity through modern times to show the prevalence of Quaker ideas throughout history, also drew substantial attention in the Bee Hive. Pastorius repeatedly cited examples of piety from No Cross, No Crown. The collected works of Hubberthorne, Penington, and Burrough also were important, although much less frequently cited than the works of Penn and Fox.

Other volumes appearing in the list dealt with specific issues. Many were concerned with the English legal system's treatment of Quakers. There were the records of suffering that was so prominent a part of Quaker life in the seventeenth century, such as George Whitehead's The Case of the Suffering People of God and William Penn's Continued Cry of the Oppressed for Justice.(17) There were many short, similar volumes by lesser known Quakers.(18) Other volumes recorded sufferings in New England, including George Bishop's New England Judged by the Spirit of the Lord and the anonymous A Brief Narrative of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers who were put to Death at Boston in New England.(19) Penn's pamphlet describing his 1670 trial resonated particularly well with Pastorius. From it he recorded the ideas that "People should have a share in the making of their own Laws and likewise in the judicatory Power to apply these laws made."(20)

The Quaker interest in religious freedom and law reform appeared in other volumes in Pastorius' list that were addressed to the King, magistrates, and merchants. The works urged fairer treatment, suggesting that magistrates enforce the laws properly without introducing their own personal biases, that magistrates not enforce the harsh criminal law too rigorously, and that merchants not seek profit to the exclusion of all other goals.(21) Such precatory pamphlets may have proved influential in Pennsylvania, where Quakers were in a position to put their ideas about government into practice.

George Fox's Journal, which detailed both his own sufferings and those he witnessed at the hands of capricious magistrates, was probably the most graphic and important portrayal of the inequities of the English criminal justice system for early Pennsylvanians. Another important source of information for Pastorius on that issue was George Fox's An Instruction to Judges and Magistrates. Fox's forty-page pamphlet critiqued the inequities of the English legal system. Fox argued against the death penalty for mere property crimes and urged magistrates to act as friends to the poor. Pastorius adopted Fox's statement that "Job was a judge . . . he was legs to the lame, eyes to the blind, a help to the helpless."(22)

Penn's Fruits of Solitude, a book of maxims written while Penn was imprisoned in the Tower of London, appealed to Pastorius' taste for aphorism. The Fruits of Solitude contained advice on political and legal issues as well as religious ones and thus connected Quaker religious ideas to government, which Pastorius drew from generously. "Do not ask for what will not ruin thee to [not] obtain" he wrote in the debt entry.(23)

Some pamphlets were directed against specific laws. The Conventicle Act was used freely to prosecute Quakers. Some writers proclaimed that the law was not intended to apply to Quakers; others argued that Quaker meetings were not conventicles.(24) Similarly, there were several pamphlets opposing tithes, including Francis Howgill's The Great Case of the Tythes and the anonymous The Ancient Testimony of the Primitive Christians . . . Revived Against Tythes.(25)

Most of the entries dealt with issues of religious doctrine than with outward government. Here again they took various forms. Some were affirming ones urging Pietism and outlining Quaker beliefs, such as Robert Barclay's Truth Triumphant through Spiritual Warfare, a collection of his writings covering the broad expanse of Quaker beliefs. George Fox's Journal recounted not only his sufferings in the English criminal justice system; it also recounted his conversion to the Light and the ways he maintained his fervor. There are collections of writings of Quakerism's major figures, including Fox's Letters, Penn's Journal and the writings of such important figures as James Naylor and Stephen Crisp. There were also individual tracts devoted to explaining Quaker principles, such as Edward Burrough's A Declaration to all the World of Our Faith and What We Believe. Likewise, there were explanations of doctrine from George Fox, such as The Pearl Found in England and The Papists Strength, Principles, and Doctrines . . . Answered and Confuted, and from other leaders, such as William Penn's 1696 Christian Quaker.(26)

The most popular of the writings designed to induce pietism appeared in the list. John Thompson's often-reprinted Piety Promoted, which collected the dying sayings of numerous Quakers illustrates the role that individual experience and testimony played in Quakerism.(27) Pastorius' list included many individual testimonies of Quakers, such as James Naylor's Milk for Babes and Meat for Strong Men . . . being the Breathings of the Spirit Through His Servant James Naylor.(28) Other tracts in the list defended Quaker doctrine, such as Elizabeth Bathhurst's Truth's Vindication, or A Gentle Stroke to Wipe Off the Foul Aspersions . . . Cast Upon the People of God Called Quakers.(29)

The Quakers' own political and ecclesiastical dispute in Pennsylvania, the controversy over George Keith that racked the colony beginning in 1691, generated a number of tracts. They show, like so much of Quaker writings, the combined elements of law, politics and religion. Pastorius has access to the State of the Case, a tract written by Samuel Jennings, one of the judges who presided over the defamation trial of George Keith, Thomas Budd, Peter Boss and William Bradford, which turned the controversy into a legal dispute as well as a religious and political one.(30) Pastorius also cited five tracts by Caleb Pusey, including Satan's Harbinger Detected, Pusey's response to Daniel Leeds, a Keith supporter, which ran to more than 100 pages.(31)

One must be wary when using lists of books as a proxy for ideas. Just because a book appeared in a person's library does not mean that the owner supported, believed, or had even read its contents. Nor can one know how a reader interpreted a book's contents when it was read. Pastorius' list, when used in conjunction with the Bee Hive entries, suggests the ideas that at least one reader took away from the texts and may, therefore, mitigate some of the problems of interpretation posed by a bare bibliography. In the case of Henry Clark's Here is True Magistracy Described, for example, Pastorius cited Clark's pamphlet in his Bee Hive entry on magistrates as a source of ideas about magistrates. Pastorius neglected to mention, however--and in the same Bee Hive entry actually opposed--the main idea of Clark's pamphlet, that Quakers should not use the legal system.(32) One can see in the Bee Hive entries the material Pastorius thought useful in the books. The common theme of Quaker writings suggest--and his Bee Hive entries confirm--that they were cited because he supported in general the position of the authors.

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Some studies have shown the extent of European ideas--particularly religious ideas--in early Pennsylvania.(33) Imaginative monographs such as Frederick B. Tolles' Meeting House and Counting House, J. William Frost's The Quaker Family in Colonial America, and more recently, Sally Schwartz's A Mixed Multitude, all explored the vibrant ideas collected from Europe and transplanted to the Delaware Valley.(34) Much of the recent scholarship on early Pennsylvania explores the ideas of the colonists, derived from study of the treatises written by the colonists or by study of the books in their libraries. Edwin Wolf's 1988 book on colonial Philadelphia, for instance, has added substantial dimension to our understanding of the reading interests of Philadelphians. Tolles, Frost, and Wolf together show that Quakers read (and wrote) widely and in diverse areas, from religion to law to politics to horticulture.(35) Pastorius' list contributes to that understanding. While Professor Frost has pointed out that American Quakers by the middle of the eighteenth century often lacked access to important seventeenth-century Quaker authors, such as George Fox, William Penn, and Issac Penington, Pastorius' list suggests that at least at the beginning of the eighteenth century there was a well-developed Quaker book culture in the Philadelphia area.(36)

Some treatises in Pastorius' list were great in size as well as in the knowledge that they might impart. The collected works of Edward Burrough and Issac Penington each ran to more than eight hundred pages. But what of the median size of the writings? Nearly half (156) were thirty pages or less in length. They remind us that much of the Quaker culture was developed by people writing their thoughts in tracts that could be produced quickly and inexpensively and then carried to the far reaches of Quaker settlement. They also remind us that Quakerism was a religion that gained momentum not by the power of "theological tenets" but by people "recognizing the moral actions of Quakers."(37) The several hundred Quaker publications circulating in early Pennsylvania are worthy of study because of what they teach about the ideas of the people who brought them to the Delaware Valley and of the people who had access to them.

Endnotes

Appendix

Books by Friends Referenced in the Bee Hive

Abbreviations:

BL: The British Library Catalogue of Printed Books to 1975 (London, 1979-87).

Evans: Charles Evans, Bibliography of Books Printed in America, 1641-1800 (New York, 1901-1920).

NUC: The National Union Catalogue, Pre-1956 Imprints (Washington, 1968-81).

Smith: Joseph Smith, Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books (London, 1859).

Wing: Donald G. Wing, Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America, and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1641-1700, rev. ed., (New York, 1972-1988).

Spellings have been retained as in the original; punctuation has been modernized. The entries have been placed in alphabetical order of author's last name and numbered sequentially, except for a few entries with incomplete citations that are listed at the end of the Appendix. An asterisk denotes a work that Pastorius indicated that he used in preparing an entry in the Bee Hive.

1. Robert Allan, The Cry of Innocent Blood, Sounding to the Ear of Each Member in Parliament being a short relation of the Barbarous Cruelties Inflicted Lately Upon the Peaceable People of God called Quakers (London, 1670) 8 pp. Wing A1045-B.

2. William Ames, Good Counsel and Advice to all the Friends of Truth (London, 1661) 14 pp. Wing A300.

3. John Anderdon, Against Babylon and Her Merchants in England (London, 1660) 15 pp. Wing A3078.

4. Anon., To All Friends and People in the Whole Christendome, (So Called) That they May See What was the Government of the Church of the Jewes, the Government of the Church of Christ in the Primitive Times (London, 1658) 29 pp. Wing A1321.

5. Anon., The Ancient Testimony of the Primitive Chrisitians and Maryters of Jesus Christ, Revived Agt. Tythes: Or, a Relation of the Sufferings of William Dobson (London, 1680) 13 pp. Wing A3074.

6. Anon., A Declaration of the Marks and Fruits of the False Prophets (n.p., 1655) 15 pp. Wing D711.

7. Anon., A Test and Protest Against Popery from the Christian Protestants Called Quakers (London, 1680) 18 pp. Wing T793.

8. Anon., Some Queries to be Answered in Writing or Print by the Masters (London, 1654) 16 pp. Wing S4564.

9. Anon., A Test and Protest Against Popery from the Conscientious Christian Protestants Called Quakers (London, 1680) 18 pp. Wing T793.

10. Benjamin Antrobus, Buds and Blossoms of Piety, with some fruit of the spirit of love (London, 1691) 128 pp. Wing A3522. *

11. John Axford, Hidden Things Brought to Light for the Increase of Knowledge in Reading the Bible: Being an Explanation of the Coins, Money-weights, Measures Mentioned in the Bible (London, 1697) 33 pp. Wing A4280A.

12. Daniel Baker [attributed to Thomas Hart by Pastorius], The Prophet Approved, by the Words of His Prophesie Coming to Passe (London, 1659) 4 pp. Wing B484.

13. Daniel Baker, A Single and General Voice: Lifted Up Like a Trumpet Sounding Forth the Lords controversie, Concerning London, with Her Governors, Priests, and Citizens (London, 1659) 18 pp Wing B485.

14. Richard Baker, A Testimony to the Power of God, Being Greater than the Power of Satan: Contrary to all those who hold no Perfection Here, No Freedom from Sin on this Side of the Grave (London, 1699) 32 pp. Wing B5414d. *

15. John Bank, An Epistle to Friends, Showing the Great Difference Between a Convinced Estate and a Converted Estate and Between the Profession of the Truth, and the Possession Thereof (London, 1692) 20 pp. Wing B652.

16. Robert Barclay, Truth Triumphant through Spiritual Warfare, Christian Labors and Writings of that Able and Faithful Servant of Jesus Christ (London, 1692) 908 pp. Wing B740. *

17. Elizabeth Bathhurst, Truth's Vindication: or a Gentle Stroke to Wipe Off the Foul Aspersions and False Accusations and Misrepresentations, Cast Upon the People of God Called Quakers, Both With Respect to Their Principle and their Way of Proselytizing People Over to Them (London, 1679) 104 pp. Wing B1137.

18. William Bayly, An Arrow Shot Against Babylon out of Josephs Bow (London, 1663) 26 pp. Wing B1518.

19. William Bayly, A Collection of the Several Writings of that true Prophet, . . . William Bayly (London, 1676) 774 pp. Wing B1517.

20. William Bayly, General Epislte to All Friends (London, 1662) 4 pp. Wing B1527.

21. William Bayly, A Warning from the Spirit of Truth, unto All Persecutors, and Enemies of the dear Children of God (London, 1658) 42 pp. Wing B1544.

22. Edward Breck, An Answer to a Scandalous Paper . . . Subscribed Edward Breck (London, 1656) 7 pp. Wing B4339. *

23. John Beevan, A Loving Salutation to all People Who have any Desires after the Living God (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing B1696.

24. William Bennit, A Collection of Certain Epistles and Testimonies of Devine Consolation, Experience and Doctrine (London, 1685) 216 pp. Wing B1891.

25. [Robert Berd], To the Parliament of . . . England: A Representation of the Outrages and Cruellties Acted Upon the Servants of Christ, At Two Meetings at Sabridgworth in Hartford-shire (London, 1659) 6 pp. Wing B1958.

26. Edward Billing, Words in the Word: To Be Read by Friends in the Simplicity, Fell in the Power, and Received in the Love (London, 1661) 7 pp. Wing B2904. *

27. E.B. [Edward Billing or Edward Burrough?], An Alarm to all Flesh: With an Invitation to the True Seekers: An Arrow Shot Against Babylon Out of Joseph's Bow Warning (once more) from God, unto all such Rulers, Teachers, and People in England who are, or may be, Persecutors about Religion and Worship (London, 1660) 10 pp. Wing B598.

28. William Bingley [attributed to Moses West by Pastorius], A Grevious Lamentation over Thee O England: Or, the Greatest Part of they Inhabitants, who have withstood the day of their visitation (London, 1683) 8 pp. Wing B2921.

29. George Bishop, A Few Words in Season; or, A Warnings from the Lord to the Friends of Truth (London, 1660) 3 pp. Wing B2993.

30. George Bishop, Mene Tekel: Or, The Council of Officers of the Army, Against the Declarations (London, 1659) 50 pp. Wing B3000. *

31. George Bishop, New England Judged Not by Man's But by the Spirit of the Lord (London, 1661) 198 pp. Wing B3003.

32. George Bishop, A Vindication of the Principles and Practices of the People Called Quakers (London, 1665) 75 pp. Wing B3014.

33. George Bishop, The Warnings of the Lord to this Generation (London, 1660) 44 pp. Wing B3016.

34. Sarah Blackborow, The Just and Equall Balance Discovered: With a True Measure whereby the Inhabitants of Sion Doth Fathom and Compass all False Worshipps and Their Ground (London, 1660) 14 pp. Wing B3064.

35. John Bockett, The Poor Mechanick's Plea Against the Rich Clergy's Oppression (London, 1700) 48 pp. Wing B3389.

36. James Bolton, Judas His Thirty Pieces Not Received, But Sent Back to Him, For his Own Bag . . . Being Something by way of an answer to a Letter that was sent . . . from Robert Rich in Barbadoes, which was for the distribution of a certain sume of money to seven churches . . . wherein it is manifested . . . Quakers cannot partkae of his gift (n.p., c. 1660) 15 pp. Wing B3506.

37. Edward Bourne, A Looking-Glass Discovering to all People What Image they Bear (London, 1671) 27 pp. Wing B3847.

38. Edward Bourne, A Warning from the Lord God Out of Zion (London, 1660) 18 pp. Wing B3849.

39. John Braithwait, To all Those that Observe Days, Months, Times and Years (London, 1660) broadside Wing B4208.

40. William Britten, Silent Meeting A Wonder to the World: Yet Practised by the Apostles and Owned by the People of God . . . called Quakers (London, 1671) 16 pp. Wing B4826.

41. John Burnyeat, The Truth Exalted in the Writings of that Eminent and Faithful Servant of Christ, John Burnyeat (London, 1691) 264 pp. Wing B5968.

John Burnyeat, see also George Fox, A New England Fire-Brand

42. Edward Burrough, A Declaration to all the World of Our Faith and What We Believe who are Called Quakers (London, 1661) 8 pp. Wing B5997.

43. Edward Burrough, A Description of the State and Condition of All Mankinde Upon the Face of the Whole Earth (London, 1657) 14 pp. Wing B5999.

44. Edward Burrough, A Faithful Testimony Concerning the True Worship of God (London, 1659) 14 pp. Wing B6002.

45. Edward Burrough, A Measure of the Times (London, 1657) 39 pp. Wing B6012.

46. Edward Burrough, A Standard Lifted Up and Ensigne Held Forth to all Nations (London, 1658) 32 pp. Wing B6030.

47. Edward Burrough, Truth (the Strongest of All) Witnessed Fully in the Spirit of Truth, Against All Deceit (London, 1657) 63 pp. Wing B6051.

48. Edward Burrough, A Visitation and Preservation of Love unto the King and Those Call'd Royalists (London, 1660) 39 pp. Wing B6054.

49. Edward Burrough, The Wofull Cry of Unjust Persecutions and Grievous Oppressions of the People of God in England (London, 1657) 35 pp. Wing B6058.

50. John Camm, The Memory of the Righteous Revived: Being a Brief Collection of the Books and Written Epistles of John Camm and John Audland (London, 1689) 332 pp. 1 Smith 367-77.

51. William Caton, A Journal of the Life of that Faithful Servant and Minister . . . William Caton (London, 1689) 83 pp. Wing C1514.

52. Thomas Chalkley, A Loving Invitation to Young and Old, in Holland, and Elsewhere: to Seek and Love Almighty God, and to Prepare in Time for their Eternal Welfare (London, 1710) 18 pp. NUC C0278931. *

53. William Chandler, A. Pyot, J. Hodges, A Brief Apology in Behalf of the People Called Quakers (London, 1694) 86 pp. Wing C1934A. *

54. Christopher Cheesman, An Epistle to Charles the II King of England and to Every Individual Member of His Council (Reading, 1661) 8 pp. Wing C3773.

55. Richard Claridge, Lux Evangelica attestata: or, A Further Testimony to Sufficiency of the Light Within. Being a Reply to George Keith's Censure in his book, intitled, An Account of Quaker Politics (London, 1701) 98 pp. 1 Smith 411.

56. Richard Claridge, Mercy Covering the Judgment Seat and Life and Light Triumphing Over Death and Darkness (London, 1700) 39 pp. Wing C4434.

57. Henry Clarke, Here is True Magistracy Described and the Way to Rule and Judge the People Set Forth (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing C4455.

58. Josiah Coale, The books and Divers Epistles of the Faithful Servant of the Lord, Joshiah Coale (contains a Vindication of the Light Within, Against Darkness, Error and Blasphmy of John Newman) (London, 1671) 228 pp. Wing C4751.

59. Josiah Coale, An Invitation of Love to the Hungry and Thirsty (London, 1660) 7 pp. Wing C4754.

60. Josiah Coale, The Last Testimony of that Faithful Servant of the Lord, Richard Farnworth (London, 1667) 12 pp. Wing F488.

61. Josiah Coale, A Testimony of the Fathers Love unto all that Desire after Him (London, 1661) 22 pp. Wing C4749.

62. Josiah Coale, A Vindication of the Light Within (London, 1699) 8 pp. Wing W698.

Josiah Coale, see also Ambrose Rigge, Visitation

63. John D. Collens, A Touch-Stone, whereby Protestant Religion as it Stands at this Day in England May be Tryed (London, 1660) 18 pp. Wing C5234.

64. John D. Collens, A Word in Season to All in Authority (London, 1660) 26 pp. Wing C5235.

65. Edward Cooke, For each Parliament man now sitting at Dublin in Ireland (London, 1661) 8 pp. NUC C0668914. *

66. Richard Crane, A Fore-Warning and a Word of Expostulation unto the Rulers, Magistrates and Priests of England (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing C6811. *

67. Richard Crane, A Short but Strict Account Taken of Babylons Merchants (London, 1660) 22 pp. Wing C6815.

68. Stephen Crisp, The Copie of a Letter from Germany 3 pp., postscript to George Keith, The Benefit, Advantage and Glory of Silent Meetings (London, 1670) 18 pp. Wing K144. *

69. Stephen Crisp, A Description of the Church of Scotland (London, 1660) 15 pp. Wing C6928.

70. Stephen Crisp, An Epistle to Friends Concerning the Present and Succeding Times Being a Faithful Exhortation and Warning to All Friends (London, 1666) 19 pp. Wing C6931. *

71. Stephen Crisp, A Faithful Warning and Exhortation to Beware of Seducing Spirits (London, 1684) 20 pp. Wing C6936. *

72. Stephen Crisp, A Memorable Account of the Christian Experiences, Gospel Labours, Travels and Sufferings of that Ancient Servant of Christ Stephen Crisp (London, 1694) 543 pp. Wing C6920.

73. Stephen Crisp, Scripture Truths Demonstrated in Thirty Two Sermons, or Declarations (London, 1707) 607 pp. NUC C079259.

74. Stephen Crisp, Several Sermons: or, Declarations of Stephen Crisp (London, 1693) 175 pp. Wing C6941.

75. John Crook, The Design of Christianity, Testified in the Books of John Crook (London, 1701) 421 pp. NUC C0802327.

76. John Crook, An Epistle of Love to All that Are in Present Sufferings (London, 1660) 21 pp. Wing C7204. *

77. John Crook, An Epistle to all that Profess the Light of Jesus Christ within to be Guide (London, 1678) 10 pp. Wing C7206.

78. John Crook, Samuel Fisher, Francis Howgill and Richard Hubberthorne, Liberty of Conscience Asserted and Several Reasons Rendered Why No Outward Force Nor Imposition Ought to be Used in Matters of Faith and Religion (London, 1661) 8 pp. Wing L1960.

79. John Crook, Truth's Principles, or those Things About Doctrine and Worship which are Most Surely Believed and Received Among the People of God Called Quakers (London, 1663) 23 pp. Wing C7219.

80. John Crook, Truth's Progress, or, a Short Relation of its First Appearance and Publication after the Apostacy (London, 1667) 20 pp. Wing C7222. *

81. William Crouch, The Enormous Sin of Covetousness Detected with its Branches, Fraud, Oppression, Lying, Ingratitude (London, 1708) 350 pp. 1 Smith 495.

82. William Crouch, Posthuma Christiana: or, . . . A Brief Historical Account . . . of His Convincement of, and Early Sufferings for the Truth (London, 1712) 224 pp. 1 Smith 495.

83. William Dewsbury, The Faithful Testimony of that Antient Servant of the Lord, and Minister of the Everlasting Gospel William Dewsberry: His Books, Epistles, and Writings (London, 1689) 405 pp. Wing D1267.

84. William Dewsbury, To All the Faithful Brethren Born of the Immortal Seed of the Father of Life (London, 1661) 8 pp. Wing D1276.

85. William Dewsbury, The Word of the Lord to all the Inhabitants in England (London, 1666) 8 pp. Wing D1282. *

86. William Dewsbury, The Word of the Lord to his Beloved City, New Jerusalem (London, 1663) 7 pp. Wing D1283.

87. Jonathan Dickinson, God's Protecting Providence, Man's Surest Help and Defense in Times of the Greatest Difficulty . . . Evidenced in the Remarkable Deliverance of Robert Barrow . . . from the Cruel Devouring Jaws of the Inhumane Canibals of Florida (London, 1700) 85 pp. Wing D1390A. *

88. Solomon Eccles, A Musick Lector, or the Art of Musick (London, 1667) 28 pp. Wing E129. *

89. Francis Ellington, A Few Words to All who Professe Themselves to be of the Protestant Religion (London, 1665) 17 pp. Wing E542.

90. Thomas Ellwood, An Answer to George Keith's Narrative of His Proceedings at Turners Hall . . . wherein his Charges Against Divers of the People Called Quakers . . . are Fairly Considered, Examined, and Refuted (London, 1696) 232 pp. Wing E612.

91. Thomas Ellwood, A Caution to Constables and other Inferiour Officers concerned with Execution of the Conventicle-Act (London, 1683) 18 pp. Wing E616.

92. Thomas Ellwood, A Further Discovery of that Spirit or Contention and Division which Appeared of Late in George Keith (London, 1694) 128 pp. Wing E623.

93. Thomas Ellwood, Sacred History: Or, the Historical Part of the Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament (London, 1705) 576 pp. 1 Smith 567.

94. Thomas Ellwood, Sacred History: Or, the Historical Part of the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament (London, 1709) 423 pp. BL 3109 ddd 4.

95. Thomas Ellwood, Truth Defended and the friends thereof Cleared (London, 1695) 171 pp. Wing E629.

96. Richard Farnworth, Antichrist's Man of War Apprehended: and encountrd withal, by A Soldier of the Armie of the Lamb; otherwise, An Answer to a Book set Forth by . . . Edmund Skipp (London, 1655) 68 pp. Wing F470. *

97. Richard Farnworth, Christian Religious Meetings Allowed By Liturgies Are No Seditious Conventicles (n.p., 1664) 30 pp. Wing F476. *

98. Richard Farnworth, "An Epistle to the Reader," in James Naylor, Several Petitions Answered (London, 1653) 64 pp. Wing N316A. *

99. Richard Farnworth, The Pure Language of the Spirit of Truth . . . Or Thee and Thou (London, 1656) 8 pp. Wing F496. *

100. Jane Fearon, Absolute Predestination not Scriptural: or, Some Questions upon a Doctrine which I heard Preache'd, 1704, to a People called Independents (London, 1705) 40 pp. NUC 0058425.

101. Jane Fearon, A Reply to John Atkinsons Pretended Answer to Absolute Predestination Not Scriptural (London, 1709) 104 pp. 1 Smith 594.

102. Henry Fell and John Stubbs, For Presbyter John and All His Subordinate Kings and Princes (London, 1660) unknown pp. Wing H604.

103. Lydia Fell, A Testimony and Warning given forth in the Love of Truth: and is for the governor, magistrates and people . . . of Barbados (London, 1676) 20 pp. Wing F625.

104. John Field, An Humble Application to the Queen and Her Great Council the Parliament of England, to Suppress Play-Houses and Bear-Baitings (London, 1703) 15 pp. 1 Smith 607.

105. John Field, Light and Truth Discovering Sophistry and Deceit: or, a reply to a book called a Plain Discovery of Many Gross Falsehoods . . . by George Keith (London, 1701) 44 pp. 1 Smith 606-07.

106. Samuel Fisher, The Testimony of Truth Exalted By the Collected Labours of . . . Samuel Fisher who Died A Prisoner for the Testimony of Jesus and Word of God (London, 1679) 856 pp. Wing F1058. *

See also Richard Hubberthorn and Samuel Fisher, Supplementum Sublatum

107. Mary Forster, These Several Papers was sent to the Parliament (London, 1659) 72 pp. Wing F1605.

108. George Fox, That All Might See who they were that had a Command: and Did Pay Tythes; and who they were that had a Law to Receive them (London, 1657) 22 pp. Wing F1931.

109. George Fox, To All that Would Know the Way of the Kingdom, Whether they be in Forms, Without Forms, or Got Above All Forms (London, 1660) 14 pp. Wing F1945.

110. George Fox, The Arraignment of Popery Being a Short Collection . . . of the State of the Church in Primitive Times (London, 1667) 111 pp. Wing F1750A. *

111. George Fox, An Answer to a Paper Which Came from the Papists Lately Out of Holland who Goeth About to Vindicate the Pope, Jesuits, and Papists (London, 1658) 68 pp. Wing F1742.

112. George Fox, Answer to Thomas Tillam's Book Called the Seventh Day Sabeth (London, 1659) 32 pp. Wing F1747.

113. George Fox, Collection of Many Select and Christian Epistles (London, 1698) 557 pp. Wing F1764.

114. George Fox, The Copies of Several Letters which were Delivered to the King: Being written by Sundry Friends in the Truth . . . George Fox, Alexander Parker, James Naylor, Henry Fell, John Sowter, William Smith, William Caton, and G[eorge] W[hitehead] (London, 1660) 54 pp. Wing F1778.

115. George Fox, To the Council of Officers of the Armie and the Heads of the Nation (London?, 1659?) 8 pp. Wing F1955.

116. George Fox, A Cry for Repentance unto the Inhabitants of London Chieflie: And Unto All the World (London, 1656) 6 pp. Wing F1779.

117. George Fox, A Declaration from the Harmless and Innocent People of God Called Quakers Against All Sedition Plotters and Fighters in the World: For Removing of the Ground of Jealousie and Suspition from Both Magistrates and People in the Kingdoms, Concerning Wars and Fighting (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing F1787.

118. George Fox, An Epistle to all People On the Earth . . . shewing to all the People Upon Earth, that they may Come to an Understanding of Themselves (London, 1657) 20 pp. Wing F1805.

119. George Fox, An Epistle to Friends (London, 1678) 11 pp. Wing F1810.

120. George Fox, For the King and Both Houses of Parliament Sitting at Westminster, Subscribed by G. Fox, J. Stubbs, F. Howgill, R. Hubberthorn, R. Scostrope (London, 1661) 22 pp. Wing F1821.

121. George Fox, John Stubbs, and Henry Fell, For the King and His Council (London, 1660) 7 pp. Wing F1822. *

122. George Fox, Gospel Truth Demonstrated (London, 1706) 1090 pp. NUC F0273853.

123. George Fox, The Ground of High Places: and the End of High Places and a Rest for the People of God, above all the High Places of Earth (London, 1657) 25pp Wing F1834.

124. George Fox, Journal (London, 1694) 728 pp. Wing P1260A. *

125. George Fox, An Instruction to Judges and Lawyers (London, 1658) 40 pp. Wing F1848. *

126. George Fox, The Line of Rightousness and Justice Streched Forth Over All Merchants . . . an Exhortation unto all Friends and People Whatsoever . . . that Ye All Do that Which is Just (London, 1661) 8 pp. Wing F1857.

127. George Fox and John Burnyeat, A New England Fire-Brand Quenched being Something in Answer unto a Lying, Slanderous Book, Entitled George Fox Dissected out of his Burrows (London, 1679) 2 vol. in 1, 233 pp., 255 pp. Wing F1865.

128. George Fox, A Paper Sent Forth into the World from Them that are Scornfully Called Quakers Declaring the Ground and Reasons why they Deny the Teachers of the World, who Profess themselves to be Ministers, and dissent from them (London, 1654) 8 pp. Wing F1872. *

129. George Fox, The Papists Strength, Principles, and Doctrines . . . Answered and Confuted (London, 1658) 99 pp. Wing F1877.

130. George Fox, To The Parliament of the Comon-wealth (London, 1659) 23 pp. Wing F1958.

131. George Fox, The Pearl Found in England, This is for the Poor Distressed . . . from the Royal Seed of God (London, 1658) 20 pp. Wing F1879.

132. George Fox, The Priests and Professors Catechism: For them to Try Their Spirits (London, 1657) 36 pp. Wing F1882.

133. George Fox, Priests Fruit Made Manifest and the Vanity of the World Discovered (London, 1657) 6 pp. Wing F1883A.

134. George Fox, The Serious Peoples Reasoning With the Worlds Teachers and Professors (London, 1659) 8 pp. Wing F1900.

135. George Fox, Several Papers Given Forth (London, 1660) 54 pp. Wing F1902.

136. George Fox, Something in Answer to Lodowick Muggletons Book (London, 1667) 36 pp. Wing F1914.

137. George Fox & Richard Hubberthorne, Truth's Defense Not the Refined Subtlty of the Serpent held forth in Divers Answers to Severall Queries made by Men (Called Ministers) in the North (York, 1653) 107 pp. Wing F1970.

138. George Fox, A Visitation to the Jewes, from them whom the Lord hath Visited from on High (London, 1656) 36 pp. Wing F1978.

139. George Fox, A Warning to All Merchants of London, and such as buy and sell with an Advertisement to them to lay aside their superfluity and with it to Norrish the Poor (London, 1658) 6 pp. Wing F1985.

140. George Fox, A Warning to All Teachers of Children which are called School-Masters and School-Mistresses (London, 1657) 6 pp. Wing F1984.

141. George Fox (Younger), England's Sad Estate and Condition Lamented in this Just Complaint Taken Up Against the Greatest Part of Her Inhabitants (London, 1661) 13 pp. Wing F2000.

142. George Fox (Younger), A Noble Salutation and Faithful Greeting unto Thee, Charles Stuart (London, 1660) 24 pp. Wing F2008. *

142. Margaret Askew Fell Fox, A Call to the Universal Seed of God, Throughout the Whole World (London, 1665) 17 pp. Wing F625A.

143. Margaret Askew Fell Fox, The Standard of the Lord Revealed (London, 1667) 130 pp. Wing F635.

144. John Freame, Scripture-Instruction: Digested into Several Sections, By Way of Question and Answer (London, 1713) 179 pp. 1 Smith 706.

145. Abraham Fuller, The Testimony of Abraham Fuller: Concerning the Death of his Son Joseph (n.p., 1687) 12 pp. Wing F2381A.

146. John Furly, A Testimony to the True Light: Which is the Way of Life and Righteousness (London, 1670) 32 pp. Wing F2541A.

147. William Gibson, Election and Reprobation Spiritually Experimentally Witnessed (London, 1678) 111 pp. Wing G681.

148. William Gibson, Life of God (London, 1677) 152 pp. Wing C686.

149. Daniel Gould, A Brief Narration of the sufferings of the people called Quakers; who were put to Death at Boston in New England (New York, 1700) 38 pp. Evans 911. *

150. John Gratton, The Clergy-Man's Pretence of Divine Right to Tithe, Examined and Refuted (London, 1703) 79 pp. NUC G393150.

151. John Gratton, A Treatise Concerning Baptism and the Lord's Supper (London, 1695) 99 pp. Wing G1586.

152. Theophilius Green, A Narrative of Some Passages of the Life of Theophilius Green (London, 1702) 31 pp. 1 Smith 863.

153. Thomas Greene, A Lamentation Taken Up for London (London, 1665) 8 pp. Wing G1844.

154. Thomas Hart, The Prophet Approved by the Words (London, 1658) 14 pp. Wing B484.

155. Charles Harriss, A Scriptural Chronicle of Satan's Incendiaries: viz, Hard-Hearted Persecutors and Malicioius Informers with their Work, Wages, and Ends (London, 1670) 19 pp. Wing H919.

156. Charles Harriss, The Wolf Under Sheeps-Clothing Discovered, or the Spirit of Cain, Appearing in the Bishop of Liechfield (London, 1669) 23 pp. Wing H920. *

157. Jeremiah Haward, Here Followeth A True Relation of Some Sufferings Inflicted upon the Servants of God . . . called Quakers (London?, 1654) 8 pp. Wing H1547.

158. Richard Hawkins, A Brief Narrative of the Life and Death of that Antient Servant of the Lord and his People, Gilbert Lately (London, 1707) 156 pp. 1 Smith 925. *

159. Roger Haydock, A Collection of the Christian Writings, Labours, Travels and Suffering (London, 1700) 35 pp. 1 Smith 927.

160. Roger Haydock, The Skirmisher Confounded (London, 1676) 15 pp. Wing H1206. *

161. Jeremiah Haward, Here Followeth A True Relation or Some of the Sufferings Inflicted Upon the Servants of the Lord, who are Called Quakers by this Generation of Evil-Doers (London, 1654) 8 pp. Wing H1547.

162. Joseph Helling, A Salutation from the Breathings of the Life to the Faithful in the Kingdome and Patience of Jesus Christ (London, 1661) 8 pp. Wing H1383.

163. John Higgins, Christian Salutation to all the People of God (Often in Scorn Called Quakers) (London, 1663) 8 pp. Wing H1952.

164. Hannah Hill, A Legacy for Children: being some of the Last Expressions and Dying Sayings of Hannah Hill, Jr. (Philadelphia, 1717) 22 pp. 1 Smith 950.

165. Richard Hodden, The One Good Way of God: Contrary to the Many Different Ways of Men's Making. With Loving Warnings, Exhortations and Cautions, to All Sorts of Men, Concerning their Souls (London, 1661) 54 pp. Wing H2283.

166. Luke Howard, A Few Plain Words of Instruction (London, 1658) 20 pp. Wing H2985.

167. Edward Burrough and Francis Howgill, To the Camp of the Lord in England (n.p., 1656) 24 pp. Wing H3184.

168. Francis Howgill, The Great Case of Tithes and Forced Maintenance Once More Revived (London, 1665) 73 pp. Wing H3165.

169. Francis Howgill, An Information and also Advice to the Armie . . . and Also to All People who Seeks Peace and Righteousness (London, 1659) 11 pp. Wing H3167.

170. Francis Howgill, The Inheritance of Jacob Discovered, After His Return Out of AEgypt (London, 1656) 38 pp. Wing H3168.

171. Francis Howgill, A Lamentation for the Scattered Tribes Who are Exciled Into Captivity and Are Now Mingled Among the Heathen (London, 1656) 35 pp. Wing H3170.

172. Francis Howgill, The Measuring Rod of the Lord Stretched Forth Over all Nations and the Line of True Judgment laid to the Rulers Thereof (London, 1658) 32 pp. Wing H3171.

173. Francis Howgill, Mistery Babylon The Mother of Harlots Discovered . . . In Answer to a Book Titled The Directory for the Publick Worship of God through England, Scotland, and Ireland (London, 1659) 32 pp. Wing H3173.

174. Francis Howgill, Oaths No Gospel Ordinance but Prohibited by Christ (London, 1666) 84 pp. Wing H3174.

175. Francis Howgill, The Popish Inquisition Newly Erected in New England, whereby their Church is Manifested to be a Daughter of Mysterie Bablyon . . . (London, 1659) 120 pp. Wing H3177.

176. Francis Howgill and Edward Burrough, The Visitation of the Rebellious Nation of Ireland (London, 1656) 38 pp Wing H3188.

177. Richard Hodden, The One Good Way of God Contrary to the Many Different Ways of Mens Making. With Loving Warnings, Exhortations and Cautions, to All Sorts of Men Concerning their Souls (London, 1661) 54 pp. Wing H2283.

178. Richard Hubberthorn, The Horn of the He-Goat Broken: Or, An Answer to a Lying Book Called, the Chasing the Young Quaking Harlot Out of the Citie (London, 1656) 12 pp. Wing H3234. *

179. Richard Hubberthorn, The Innocency of the Righteous Seed of God Cleared from all Slanderous Tounges and False Accusers (London, 1655) 15 pp. Wing H3226. *

180. Richard Hubberthorn, Something that Lately Passed in Discourse Between the King and Richard Hubberthorne (London, 1660) 6 pp. Wing H3234.

181. Richard Hubberthorn and Samuel Fisher, Supplementum Sublatum: John Tombes His Supplement Or, Second Book About Sweating, Disproved, and Made Void (London, 1661) 6 pp. Wing H3236. *

Richard Hubberthorn, Truths Defense, see George Fox

182. Thomas Hutchinson, Forced Uniformity Neither Christian Nor Prudent: Presented to those in Authority Whom it May Concern (London, 1675) 8 pp. Wing H3836. *

183. James Jackson, The Friendly Enquirer's Doubts and Objections Answered: Concerning the Light Within (London, 1698) 106 pp. Wing J73.

184. Samuel Jennings, The State of the Case Between Friends in Pennsylvania and George Keith (London, 1694) 80 pp. Wing J670.

185. George Keith, The Benefit, Advantage and Glory of Silent Meetings (London, 1670) 18 pp. Wing K144.

186. George Keith, The Christianity of the People Called Quakers Asserted, by George Keith: in Answer to a Sheet Called, A Serious Call to the Quakers (London, 1700) 16 pp. Wing C861.

187. George Keith, The Pretended Antidote Proved Poyson: Or, The True Principle of the Christian and Protestant Relgion Defended and the Four Counterfeit Defenders thereof Detected and Discovered . . . James Allen, Joshua Moodey, Samuel Willard and Cotton Mather (Philadelphia, 1690) 224 pp. Evans 515. *

188. George Keith, Refutation of Three Opposers of Truth, By Plain Evidence of Holy Scripture (Philadelphia, 1690) 73 pp. Evans 516. *

189. George Keith, A Serious Appeal to All the More Sober, Impartial and Judicious People in New England (Philadelphia, 1692) 67 pp. Wing K205.

190. George Keith, The True Christ Owned as He Is (n.p., 1679) 107 pp. Wing K219. *

191. George Keith, Truths Defense of the Pretended Examination by John Alexander of Lieth of the Principles of those Called Quakers (London, 1682) 254 pp. Wing K255.

192. George Keith, The Universal Free Grace of the Gospel Asserted (London, 1671) 136 pp. Wing K288. *

193. Thomas Kent, The Fall of Man Declared and the Way Declared in Plainness and According unto Truth (London, 1661) 30 pp. Wing K318.

194. Nicholas Knight, A Comparison Between the True and False Ministers in their Calling, Lives and Doctrine (London, 1675) 22 pp. Wing K691. *

195. Thomas Lawson, An Appeal to the Parliament Concerning the Poor: That there may not be a beggar in England (London, 1660) 4 pp. Wing L722.

196. Thomas Lawson, Baptismalogia, or, A Treatise Concerning Baptisms whereto is Added: A Discourse Concerning the Supper (London, 1677/78) 168 pp. Wing L723.

197. Thomas Lawson, Dagon's Fall Before the Ark; or, The Smoke of the Bottomless Pit Scoured Away . . . written, primarily as a Testimony Agst the Old Serpant His Wisdom . . . His Arts, Inventions, Comedies or Interludes . . . taught in Christian Schools (London, 1679) 94 pp. Wing L724.

198. Thomas Lawson, A Mite into the Treasure: Being a Word to Artists, Especially the Heptatechrists, the Professors of the Seven Liberal Arts . . . Showing what we Own Herein Being According to God . . . and What we Deny (London, 1680) 52 pp. Wing L726A.

199. Thomas Lawson, A Treatise Relating to the Call, Work and Wages of the Ministers of Christ (London, 1680) 118 pp. Wing L728.

200. Benjamin Lindley, The Necessity of Immediate Revelations, Towards the Foundation and Ground of True Faith, Proved; . . . Answer to the Dark Attempts of Thomas Bennett Against Them; in his Nine First Chapters, of his Pretended Confutation of Quakerism (London, 1710) 124 pp. 2 Smith 125.

201. Benjamin Lindley, The Shiboleth of Priesthood (London, 1678) 18 pp. Wing L2311.

202. Patrick Livingstone, Plain and Downright Dealing with Them That Are With Us (London, 1667) 24 pp. Wing L2605.

203. London Yearly Meeting, To George, King of Great Britain, &c. The Humble Address of the People Commonly Called Quakers (London, 1714) 1 pp. NUC T0239830.

204. Benjamin Loveling, The Plain-Dealing of the Quakers (London, 1704) 6 pp. NUC L0517639.

205. Nicholas Lucas, A True and Impartial Narration of the Remarkable Providences of the Living God of Heaven and Earth: Appearing for Us His Oppressed Servants Called Quakers . . . who most Unrighteously were at Hertford Sentenced to be Transported Beyond the Seas (London, 1664) 14 pp. Wing T2496. *

206. Thomas Lurting, The Fighting Sailor Turned Peaceable Christian: Manifested in the Convincement and Conversion of Thomas Lurting (London, 1710) 46 pp. 2 Smith 137.

207. Thomas Markham, An Account of the Life and Death of Thomas Markham (London, 1695) 24 pp. BL 4152 f. 23.

208. E.M., A Brief Answer unto the Cambridge Moddel: which is to go to the two universities to be read by all the Doctors and Students (London, 1658) 14 pp Wing M15.

209. Martin Mason, The Boasting Baptist Dismounted, and the Beast Disarmed and Sorely Wounded Without Any Carnel Weapon (London, 1656) 12 pp. 2 Smith 153. *

210. Martin Mason, A Faithful Warning, with Good Advice from Israel's God to England's King and His Council (London, 1661?) 13 pp. Wing M928. *

211. Martin Mason, The Proud Pharisee Reproved (London, 1655) 55 pp. Wing M933. *

Thomas Maule, see Philalethes

212. Charles Marshal, An Epistle to the Flock of Christ Jesus (London, 1672) 20 pp. Wing M740.

213. Henry Mollineux, Antichrist Unvailed by the Finger of God's Power (London, 1695) 276 pp. Wing M2393.

214. Mary Southworth Mollineux, Fruits of Retirement; or, Miscellaneous Poems Moral and Divine Written on a Variety of Subjects (London, 1702) 174 pp. NUC M0692041.

215. John Moon, A Real Demonstration of the True Order in the Spirit of God (London, 1663) 10 pp. Wing R456A.

216. Paul Moon, "Some Passages and Proceedings in Court," appended to George Fox, An Instruction to Judges and Lawyers (London, 1659) 40 pp. Wing F1848. *

217. Thomas Morford, The Baptist and Independent Churches (So Called) Set on Fire By a Bright Shining Light Revealed From Heaven (London, 1660) 43 pp. Wing M2727.

218. James Naylor, An Answer to a Book Called the Quakers catechism: put Out by Richard Baxter (London, 1655) 51 pp. Wing N259. *

219. James Naylor, Answer to Twenty Eight Queries Sent Out by Francis Harris to Those People he Calls Quakers (London, 1655) 26 pp. NUC N 0083118. *

220. James Naylor, Antichrist In Man, Christ's Enemy . . . An Answer to a Book titled, Antichrist in Man the Quakers' Idol (London, 1656) 17 pp. Wing N263. *

221. James Naylor, Deceit Brought to Day-Light in a General Answer to Thomas Collier (London, 1656) 28 pp. Wing N269. *

222. James Naylor, Discovery of the Beast Got Into the Seat of the False Prophet . . . Or, An Answer to a Paper Set out by T. Winterton, wherein he would Prove Something Against the Quakers if he Could (London, 1655) 19 pp. Wing N271. *

223. James Naylor, A Foole Answered According to His Folly (London, 1655) 26 pp. Wing N280. *

224. James Naylor, Love to the Lost and a Hand Held Forth to the Helpless, To Lead Out of the Dark (London, 1665) 80 pp. Wing N278. *

225. James Naylor, Milk for Babes and Meat for Strong Men . . . being the Breathings of the Spirit Through His Servant James Naylor (London, 1661) 28 pp. Wing N299. *

226. James Naylor, A Publike Discovery of the Open Blindness of Babel's Builders: in Answer to a book intitled A Publike Discovery of a Secret Deceit (London, 1655) 48 pp. Wing N305. *

227. James Naylor, A Second Answer to Thomas Moore, to that which he calls his Defense Against Popism (London, 1655) 35 pp. Wing N314. *

228. James Naylor, Several Petitions Answered, that were put by the Priests of Westmoreland (London, 1653) 64 pp. Wing N316A.

229. James Naylor, A Vindication of Truth as Held Forth in a Book Entitled, Love to the Lost (London, 1656) 57 pp. Wing N326.

230. James Naylor, Weakness Above Wickedness and Truth Subtilty . . . An Answer to a Book Called Quakers Quaking Devised by Jermey Ive's (London, 1656) 30 pp. Wing N327. *

231. James Naylor, Wickedness Weighed: in an Answer to a Book Called The Quakers' Quaking Principle . . . Set Forth by Ellis Bradshaw (London, 1656) 28 pp. Wing N331.

232. James Parke, To the Flock of God Everywhere Gathered (n.p., 1666) 8 pp. NUC P0096680. *

233. James Parke, The Hour of God's Judgments Come and Coming Upon the Wicked World (London, 1690) 24 pp. Wing P373.

234. James Parnell, Goliahs Head Cut Off with His Own Sword, in a combat betwixt little David . . . and Great Goliah . . . : In a reply to a book, . . . Propounded by James Parnell (London, 1655) 91 pp. Wing P531. *

235. James Parnell, A Shield to the Truth, Or the Truth of God Cleared from Scandalls and Reproaches Cast Upon It by Scandalous and Reproachful Tongues (London, 1655) 44 pp. Wing P537. *

236. Anthony Pearson, Great Case of Tythes Truly Stated (London, 1657) 37 pp. Wing P889.

237. William Penn, An Account of W. Penn's Travails in Holland and Germany (London, 1694) 270 pp. Wing P1245. *

238. William Penn, An Address to Protestants of All Persuasions More Especially the Magistracy and the Clergy, for the Promotion of Virtue and Charity (London, 1692) 256 pp. Wing P1249. *

239. William Penn, A Brief Answer to a False and Foolish Libel Called the Quakers Opinions (London, 1678) 26 pp. Wing P1259. *

240. William Penn, A Brief Guide Mistaken and Temporizing Rebuked, or, A Reply to Jonathan Clapham's Book intitled, A Guide to True Religion (London, 1670) 55 pp. Wing P1299.

241. William Penn, A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People Called Quakers (London, 1694) 131 pp. Wing P1257.

242. William Penn, A Call to Christendom, in an Earnest Expostulation with Her to Prepare for the Great and Notable Day of the Lord (London, 1695) 46 pp. Wing P1261. *

243. William Penn, Christian Liberty as it was Soberly Desired in a Letter to Certain Foreign States, upon Occasion of their Late Severity to Several of Their Inhabitants (London, 1674) 8 pp. Wing P1265. *

244. William Penn, The Christian Quaker and His Divine Testimony Stated and Vindicated from Scripture, Reason and Authority (London, 1699) 254 pp. Wing P1267. *

245. William Penn, Continued Cry of the Oppressed for Justice, being a Farther Account of the Late Unjust and Cruel Proceedings of Unreasonable Men Against the Persons and Estates of Many of the People call'd Quakers (London, 1675) 34 pp. Wing P1270. *

246. William Penn, A Defence of a Paper Entitled, Gospel-Truths, Against the exceptions of Bishop of Cork's Testimony (London, 1698) 119 pp. Wing P1273. *

247. William Penn, England's Present Interest Discovered (London, 1676) 62 pp. Wing P1280. *

248. William Penn, An Epistle Containing a Salutation to all Faithful Friends, A Reproof to the Unfaithful, and a Visitation to the Enquiring in a Solemn Farewell to them all in the Land of My Nativity (London, 1682) 7 pp. Wing P1283. *

249. William Penn, The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience Once more Briefly Debated and Defended by the Authority of Reason, Scripture, and Antiquity (London, 1670) 55 pp. Wing P1299. *

250. William Penn, The Guide Mistaken and Temporizing Rebuked (London, 1668) 63 pp. Wing P1301. *

251. William Penn, The Harmony of Divine and Heavenly Doctrines: Demonstrated in Sundry Declarations on Variety of Subjects Preached at the Quakers Meetings in London (London, 1696) 236 pp. NUC P0201515.

252. William Penn, Judas and the Jews Combined Against Christ and His Followers: being a Re-Joynder to the Late Nameless Reply, called, Tyranny and Hypocrisie Detected made against . . . The Spirit of Alexander (London, 1673) 130 pp. Wing P1307. *

253. William Penn, Just Censure of Francis Buggs Address (London, 1699) 43 pp. Wing P1308.

254. William Penn, A Just Rebuke to One and Twenty Learned and Reverend Divines (So Called): being an Answer to an Abusive Epistle Against the People Call'd Quakers (London, 1674) 32 pp. Wing P1311. *

255. William Penn, A Key to Open Every Way to Every Common Understanding: How to Discern the Difference Betwixt the Religion Professed by the People Called Quakers and their Adversaries (London, 1694) 44 pp. Wing P1313.

256. William Penn, More Fruits of Solitude (London, 1702) 111 pp. 2 Smith 309. *

257. William Penn, No Cross, No Crown (London, 1682) 600 pp. Wing P1328. *

258. William Penn, One Project for the Good of England, that is, Our Civil Union is Our Civil Safety (n.p., 1679) 11 pp. Wing P1334. *

259. [William Penn,] The Peoples Ancient Liberties Asserted in the Trial of William Mead and William Penn (London, 1670) 62 pp. Wing P1335. *

260. William Penn, Primitive Christianity Revived in the Faith and Practice of the People Called Quakers (London, 1696) 122 pp. Wing P1342.

261. William Penn, A Reply to a Pretended Answer, By A Nameless Author, to W.P.'s Key (London, 1695) 156 pp. Wing P1354.

262. William Penn, Sandy Foundation Shaken (London, 1668) 36 pp. Wing P1356.

263. William Penn, Saul Smitten to the Ground: being a brief but faithful narrative of the dying remorse of a late living enemy . . . Matthew Hide (London, 1675) 16 pp. Wing P1358. *

264. William Penn, The Skirmisher Defeated and Truth Defended: being an Answer to a Pamphlet, Entituled, A Skirmisher Made Upon Quakerism (London, 1676) 41 pp. Wing P1364. *

265. William Penn, Some Fruits of Solitude in Reflection and Maxims Relating to Conduct of Human Life (London, 1693) 134 pp. Wing P1369. *

266. William Penn, The Spirit of Alexander the Copper-Smith Lately Revived, Now Justly Rebuked, or, An Answer to a late Pamphlet intituled, The Spirit of the hat, or the government of the Quakers (London, 1673) 28 pp. Wing P1374. *

267. William Penn, The Spirit of Truth Vindicated: Against that of Error and Envy . . . in a Late Malicious Libel, Intituled, The Spirit of the Quakers Tryed (London, 1672) 138 pp. Wing P1375. *

268. William Penn, Tender Counsel and Advice: by way of Epistle to all Those Who are Sensible of Their Day of Visitation (London, 1696) 47 pp. Wing P1378.

269. William Penn, A Testimony to the Truth of God, As Held by the People Called Quakers (London, 1699) 56 pp. Wing P1380.

270. William Penn, A Treatise of Oaths, Containing Several Weighty Reasons why the People Call'd Quakers Refuse to Swear: And those Confirmed by Numerous Testimonies Out of Gentiles, Jews, and Christians (London, 1675) 160 pp. Wing R1400, P1388. *

271. William Penn, Truth Exalted in a Short but Sure Tesitimony Against All Those Religions, Faiths, and Worships that have been Formed in the Darkness of Apostacy (London, 1671) 20 pp. Wing P1390. *

272. William Penn, Truth Rescued from Imposture, or, A Brief Reply to a Meer Rhapsodie of Lies, Folly and Slander (London, 1670) 71 pp. Wing P1392. *

273. William Penn, Urim and Thummi: or, The Apostolical Doctrines of Light and Perfection Maintained (London, 1674) 32 pp Wing P1393. *

274. [William Penn,] A Just Censure of Francis Bugg's Address to the Parliament Against the Quakers (London, 1699) 42 pp. Wing P1308.

275. Isaac Penington, An Answer to that Common Objection Against the Quakers, That they Condemn All But Themselves (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing P1151.

276. Isaac Penington, The Axe Laid To the Root of the Old Corrupt-Tree And the Spirit of Deceit Struck at in Its Nature (London, 1659) 42 pp. Wing P1152.

277. Isaac Penington, Babylon the Great Described: The City of Confusion Whereof In Every Part whereof antichrist Reigns, which Knoweth Not the Order and Unity of the Spirit, But Striveth to Set Up an Order and Uniformity According to the Wisdom of the Flesh (London, 1659) 56 pp. Wing P1153.

278. Isaac Penington, An Examination of the Grounds or Causes to which are said to Induce the Court of Boston in New-England to Make that Order or Law of Banishment Upon Pain of Death Against Quakers (London, 1660) 99 pp. Wing P1166.

279. Isaac Penington, The Jew Outward: Being a Glass for the Professors of this Age (London, 1659) 28 pp. Wing P1174.

280. Isaac Penington, The Scattered Sheep Sought After (London, 1659) 28 pp. Wing P1187.

281. Isaac Penington, The Way of Life and Death Made Manifest and Set Before Men (London, 1658) 100 pp. Wing P1219.

282. Isaac Penington, The Works of the Long-Mournful and Soberly Distressed Isaac Penington . . . In Two Parts (London, 1681) 496 pp. Wing P1149.

283. Philalethes, [Thomas Maule], For the Service of the Truth (Philadelphia, 1703) 8 pp. Evans 1135. *

284. Daniel Phillips, A Dissertation of the Small Pox (London, 1702) 119 pp. NUC P0325387.

285. Daniel Philips, Vindiciae Veritatis: or, An Occasional Defence of the Principles and Practives of the People Called Quakers in Answer to John Stilling (London, 1702) 260 pp. NUC P0325393.

286. Henry Pickworth, A Narrative of a Charge Against Francis Bugg, and His Evasions and Shufflings at Sleeford in Lincolnshire (London, 1701) 32 pp. 2 Smith 415.

287. Henry Pickworth, A Reply to Francis Bugg's Pretended Answer to a Narrative of a Charge Against Him (London, 1701) 15 pp. 2 Smith 416.

288. Joseph Pike, Treatise Concerning Baptism and the Supper (London, 1710) 242 pp. 2 Smith 422.

289. Richard Pinder, Bowels of Compassion Towards the Scattered Lord (1659) 11 pp. Wing P2261.

290. Richard Pinder, A Loving Invitation (to Repentance and Amendment of Life) Unto All the Inhabitants of the Island of Barbados (London, 1660) 16 pp. Wing P2263.

291. Richard Pinder, The Spirit of Error Discovered in the Accounted Pastors and Teachers of the Island Bermuda, In the West Indies (London, 1660) 24 pp. Wing P2264.

292. Peter Price, The Unequal Unyoked, and the Equal Yoked (London, 1683) 20 pp. Wing P3397.

293. Caleb Pusey, The Bomb Searched and Found Stuffed With False Ingredients (Philadelphia, 1705) 76 pp. Evans 1230.

294. Caleb Pusey, A Modest Account From Pennsylvania of the Principal Difference in Point of Doctrine Between George Keith and those of the People Called Quakers from whom he Separated (London, 1696) 68 pp. Wing P4248.

295. Caleb Pusey, Proteus Ecclesiasticus, Or George Keith Varied in Fundamentals and Proved An Apostate With Remakrs of Daniel Leed's Almanac for the Year 1703 by Way of Post-Script (Philadelphia, 1703) 60 pp. Evans 1144. *

296. Caleb Pusey, Satan's Harbinger Encountered . . . Being Something in the way of an Answer to Daniel Leeds' His Book, Entitled, News of a Trumpet (Philadelphia, 1700) 144 pp. Evans 948.

297. Caleb Pusey, Some Remarks Upon a Late Pamphlet Signed Part by John Talbot, and Part by Daniel Leeds, Called the Great Mystery of Fox-Craft (Philadelphia, 1705) 40 pp. Evans 1231.

298. Ambrose Rigge, To All Who Imprison and Persecute the Saints and Servants of God for Meeting Together in His Name, and Fear, To Worship Him as He Requireth (London, 1659) 8 pp. Wing R1495.

299. Ambrose Rigge, A Scripture-Catechism for Children (London, 1672) 110 pp. Wing R1489.

300. Ambrose Rigge, To the Whole Flock of God Everywhere (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing R1497.

300. Ambrose Rigge, A Visitation of Tender Love (Once More) From the Lord Unto Charles II (London, 1662) 8 pp. Wing R1500. [Pastorius attributed to Josiah Coale]

301. John Rous, A Warning to the Inhabitants of Barbados: Who Live in Pride, Drunkennesse, Covetousness, Oppression and Deceitful Dealings (n.p., 1656) 8 pp. Wing R2045.

302. Thomas Rudyard, The Anabaptists Lying Wonder, &c, Returned upon Themselves (London, 1672) 11 pp. Wing R2174. *

303. Thomas Rudyard, The Barbican Cheat Detected, Or, Injustice Arraigned: Being a Brief and Sober Disquisition of the Procedure of the Anabaptists (London, 1674) 36 pp. Wing R2177. *

304. Thomas Rudyard, The Case of Protestant Dissenters . . . for Information of . . . justices of the peace, grand jurors, petty juries (London, 1680) 8 pp. Wing R2180.

305. Thomas Rudyard, The Case of Protestant Dissenters Prosecuted on Old Statutes, Against Papists (London, 1682) 6 pp. Wing R2178. *

306. Thomas Rudyard, The Cause of the Widows and Fatherless Pleaded With the Judges and Magistrates of England (London, 1665) 16 pp. Wing R2181.

307. Thomas Salthouse, A Candle Lighted at a Coal from the Alter (London, 1660) 24 pp. Wing S471.

308. Thomas Salthouse, A Manifestation of Divine Love, Or, Some Spiritual Breathings Consisting of Two General Epistles (London, 1660) 21 pp. Wing S475, P382.

309. Edward Sammon, A Discovery of the Education of the Scholars of Cambridge (London, 1659) 14 pp. Wing S537.

310. Henry Scougal, The Life of God in the Soul of Man, or, the Nature and Excellency of the Christian Religion (London, 1677) 128 pp. Wing S2101.

311. William Shewen, A Brief Testimony Against Tale-bearers, Whisperers and Back-Biters (n.p., 1686) 24 pp. Wing S3418. *

312. William Shewen, Counsel to the Christian Traveler (London, 1683) 224 pp. NUC S0504409.

313. William Shewen, A Few Words Concerning Conscience (London, 1675) 46 pp. Wing S3421.

314. William Shewen, True Christians Faith and Experience Briefly Declared Concerning God (London, 1675) 242 pp. Wing S3424. *

315. William Sixmith, Some Fruits Brought Forth Through a Tender Branch in the Heavenly Vine Christ Jesus (London, 1679) 27 pp. Wing S3925. *

316. Humphrey Smith, A Collection of the Several Writings and Faithful Testimonies of that Suffering Servant of God (London, 1683) 340 pp. Wing S4051.

317. Humphrey Smith, Hidden Things Made Manifest by the Light (London, 1658) 20 pp. Wing 4062. *

318. Humphrey Smith, Something in reply to Edmund Skipp's Book Called the Quaker's Blazing Star (London, 1655) 22 pp. Wing S4073. *

319. William Smith, Balm from Gilead: A Collection of the Living Testimonies (London, 1675) 595 pp. Wing S4287. *

320. William Smith, The Morning-Watch: or, a Spiritual Glass Opened, wherein a Clear Discovery is Made of that which Lies in Darknesse, from whence wars, contentions, and destructions do arise concerning a professed religion (London, 1660) 60 pp. Wing S4317.

321. William Smith, A Real Demonstration of the True Order in the Spirit of God, and of the Ground of all Formality and Idolatry with a Few Words Unto Such as are Concerned in it (London, 1663) 10 pp. Wing R456A.

322. William Smith, A Tender Visitation of the Father's Love, To All the Elect-Children, or, An Epistle unto the Righteous Congregations who in Light are Gathered (London, 1660) 16 pp. Wing S4336. *

323. William Smith, The True Light Shining in England, To Give Unto All Her Inhabitants the Knowledge of Their Ways Wherein They May Behold Things Past, and Things that Are, and Thereby Come to Repentence (London, 1660) 23 pp. Wing S4339.

324. William Smith, Wisdom of the Earthly Wise Confounded (London, 1679) 15 pp. Wing S4345. *

325. Amos Stodart, Something Written in a Lying, Scandalous Book printed for E.B. in Pauls Churchyard . . . the Author of it is said to be Called Powel (London, 1655) 8 pp. Wing S5707.

326. Thomas Taylor, A Testimony for the Lord, the Good Shepherd Against All the False Shepherds and Hirelings of the World (London, 1675) 15 pp. Wing T586.

327. Thomas Taylor, Truth's Innocency and Simplicity Shining Through the Conversion (London, 1697) 151 pp. Wing T591.

328. William Thompson, The Care of Parents, is a Happiness to Children: or, The Duty of Parents to their Children (London, 1710) 24 pp. 2 Smith 740.

329. William Thompson, Religion Epitomized: Or, a Short Discourse of the Nature of True Religion (London, 1710) 25 pp. 2 Smith 740.

330. John Tomkins, A Brief Testimony to the Great Duty of Pryaer, Shewing the Nature and Benefit Thereof (London, 1695) 132 pp. Wing T1831.

331. John Tomkins, A Brief Concordance of the Names and Attitributes within Sundry Texts Relating Unto Our Blessed Lord and Saviour (London, 1697) 206 pp. Wing T183.

332. John Tomkins, The Harmony of the Old and New Testaments and the Fulfilling of the Prophets Concerning Our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (London, 1697) 146 pp. Wing T1833.

333. John Tomkins, Piety Promoted, In a Collection of the Dying Sayings of Many of the People Call'd Quakers (London, 1701) 3 vols. NUC P0360010. *

334. John Tomkins, A Trumpet Sounded: Or, A Warning to the Unfaithful, To Prize the Day of Their Visitation, Before It Be Over (London, 1703) 96 pp. 2 Smith 748. *

335. William Tomlinson, A Short Work But of the Greatest Concern (London, 1696) 72 pp. Wing T1852. *

336. William Tomlinson, A Word of Information to Them That Need It Briefly Opening Some Most Weighty Passages of Gods Dispensations Among the Sons of Men, from the Beginning (London, 1660) 47 pp. Wing T1854.

337. Thomas Upsher, To Friends in Ireland and Elsewhere: A Mournful Word to the Merry-Hearted in Zion (Philadelphia, 1700) 22 pp. Evans 956.

338. Thomas Upsher, An Answer to a pamphlet, intitled, An Account of an Occasional Conference between George Keith and Thomas Upshur (London, 1701) 32 pp. NUC U0209793.

339. Richard Vickris, A Few Things of Great Weight Offered to the Consideration of All Sober People, and to Friends of Truth More Particularly Concerning their Children (London, 1697) unknown pp. Wing V338.

340. Richard Vivers, The Vicar of Banbury Corrected: or, An Answer to Benjamin Loveling (London, 1703) 16 pp. NUC V 0205573.

341. Richard Waite, The Widdow's Mite Cast into the Treasury of the Lord God, and given forth to the Upright-hearted (London, 1663) 8 pp. Wing W225. *

342. Robert Wastfield, A True Testimony of Faithfull Witnesses Recorded . . . wherein the Wicked Designs and Cruel Practices of Several of the Rulers, Priests and People of the County of Sommerset Against the Innocent are Plainly Discovered (London, 1657) 98 pp. Wing W1036.

343. Morgan Watkins, The Day Manifesting the Night, and the Deeds of Darkness Reproved by the Light (London, 1660) 14 pp. Wing W1065.

344. Morgan Watkins, The Marks of the True Church, The Virgin and Spouse of Christ that Brings Forth by a Holy Seed the Birth that Pleaseth God, and the Marks of the False Church, or Whore, that Brings Forth the Evil Seed (London, 1675) 27 pp. Wing W1067. *

345. Morgan Watkins, Swearing denyed in the New Covenant and its Pretended Foundations Rased (London, 1660) 15 pp. Wing W1069.

346. Morgan Watkins, A Lamentation Over England (London, 1664) 48 pp. Wing W1066. *

347. Morgan Watkins, The Things that Are Caesars Rendered Unto Caesar and the Things that are Gods Rendered Unto God (London, 1666) 30 pp. Wing W1070.

348. Samuel Watson, A Mirrour to Distinguish the True Ministers of the Gospel From the False and Apostate Ministers (London, 1683) 44 pp. Wing W1098.

349. John Webster, Saints Perfect Freedom: or, Liberty in Christ Asserted, in Opposition to All Yokes of Bondage (London, 1654) 87 pp. Wing W1213.

350. Nathaniel Weston, A Warning from the Mouth of the Lord Through His Servant to the People of England (London, 1660) 7 pp. Wing W1480.

351. Moses West, A Treatise Concerning Marriage Wherein the Unlawfulness of Mixt-Marriage is Laid Open From the Scriptures of Truth . . . Recommended More Particularly to the Youth of Either Sex Amongst the People Called Quakers (London, 1707) 39 pp. 2 Smith 873. *

352. Dorothy White, A Lamentation Unto this Nation and Also a Warning to all People of this Present Age and Generation with the Voice of Thunder Sounded Forth from the House of the Lord God (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing W1751.

353. Dorothy White, A Visitation of Heavenly Love Unto the Seed of Jacob Yet in Captivity (London, 1660) 9 pp. Wing W1795.

354. George Whitehead, Cain's Generation Discovered: In Answer to an Epistle [in] A Short and Full Vindication of that Great and Comfortable Ordinance, of Singing Psalms . . . Also Several Queries to them that Profess the Scriptures to be their Rule to Walk By (London, 1655) 14 pp. Wing W1898. *

355. George Whitehead, The Case of the Quakers Concerning Oathes (London, 1674) 51 pp. Wing W1899. * [Pastorius attributed to Gervase Benson.]

356. George Whitehead, The Case of the Suffering People of God (London, 1664) 11 pp. Wing W1901. *

357. George Whitehead, The Christian Doctrine (n.p., 1693) 20 pp. Wing W1095.

358. George Whitehead, The Due Order of Law and Justice Pleaded Against Irregular and Arbitrary Proceedings in the Case and Late Imprisonment of George Whitehead and Thomas Burr (London, 1680) 103 pp. NUC W0259683.

359. George Whitehead, The Path of the Just Cleared and Cruelty and Tyranny Laid Open, or, A Few Words to You Priests and Magistrates of this Nation . . . Wherein your Oppresion and Tyranny is Laid Open (London, 1655) 26 pp. Wing W1944.

360. George Whitehead, Quakers No Deceivers: Management of an Unjust Charge Against them Confuted (London, 1660) 33 pp. Wing W1948.

361. George Whitehead, A Rambling Pilgrim or Profane Apostate Exposed, Being an Answer to Two Persecuting Books . . . The Pilgrim's Progress From Quakerism to Christianity (London, 1700) 47 pp. Wing W1901.

362. George Whitehead, The Rector Examined, About His Book Scandalously Stiled, An Antidote Against the Demon of Quakerism by John Meriton (London, 1699) 47 pp. Wing W1953.

363. George Whitehead, A Seasonable Account of Christian Testimony and Dying-Words of Some Young-men (Philadelphia, 1700) 19 pp. Evans 950.

364. George Whitehead, A Sober Expostulation with Some of the Clergy: Against their Pretended Convert Francis Bugg and his Repeated Gross Abuses of the People called Quakers (London, 1697) 144 pp. Wing W1959.

365. George Whitehead, Truth and Innocency Vindicated and the People Called Quakers Defended in Principle and Practice Against Invididious Attempts and Calumnies (London, 1699) 72 pp. Wing W1969. *

366. George Whitehead, Truth Prevalent; and the Quakers Discharged from the Norfolk Rectors' Furious Charge In a Sober Answer to Their Book, Falsely Stiled, The Principles of the Quakers Further Shewen to be Blasphemous and Seditious (London, 1701) 187 pp. 2 Smith 904.

367. George Whitehead, A Word of Tender Admonition to King Charles II and to this Present Parliament (London, 1660), in Copies of Several Letters which were Delivered to the King (London, 1660) 54 pp. Wing F1778.

368. John Whitehead, A Manifestation of Truth Concerning the Scriptures . . . (London, 1662) 16 pp. Wing W1979.

369. John Whitehead, A Small Treatise wherein is Briefly Declared Some of Those Things I Have Heard and Seen and Learnt of the Father (London, 1665) 24 pp. Wing W1982.

370. John Whitehead, This to the King and His Councel Subscribed by John Whitehead and Many More: Something in Answer to an Order Made by the House of Lords (London, 1660) 8 pp. Wing W1983.

371. John Whiting, Judas and the Chief Priest, Conspiring to Betray Christ and His Followers; Or An Apostate Convicted and Truth Defended, in Answer to George Keith's Fourth (False) Narrative (London, 1701) 259 pp. 2 Smith 917.

372. John Whiting, Truth and Innocency Defended: Against Falsehood and Envy: and the Martyrs of Jesus, and Sufferers for his Sake, Vindicated (London, 1702) 212 pp. NUC W0263174.

373. Robert Wilkinson, The Saint's Travel to Spiritual Canaan: Wherein is Discovered Several False Rests Short of the True Spiritual Coming of the Christ in His People (London, 1648) 142 pp. NUC W0311695.

374. Humphrey Wollenrich, This is Written in Plainess of Heart and Bowels of Love to any Persecutors (London, 1661) unknonwn pp. Wing W3299. *

375. Humphrey Wollrich, A Visitation to the Captive-Seed of Israel (London, 1661) 15 pp. Wing W3305. *

376. Joseph Wyeth, Anguis Flagellatus: Or, A Switch for the Snake Being an Answer to the Third and Last Edition of A Snake in the Grass (London, 1699) 548 pp. Wing W3757.

377. Joseph Wyeth, Primitive Christianity Contained in the Faith and Practice of the People Called Quakers, Being in Answer to a Pamphlet Entitled, Primitive Heresie &c. (London, 1698) 58 pp. Wing W3761.

378. Joseph Wyeth, A Vindication of William Penn Against Thomas Budd (London, 1697) Wing W3763.

379. Thomas Wynne, An Antichristian Conspiracy Detected and Satan's Champion Defeated (London, 1679) 54 pp. Wing W3781.





Pastorius included the following works, for which complete citations have not been located:

380. Anon., An Answer to One Powel, that had been a Priest. *

382. Innocency Defended Containing an Answer to some Injurous Charges . . . Unjust Reflections of the Lord Cornbury Governour of the Province of New Jersey.

383. Thomas Lawson, [title illegible].

384. William Smith, Real Christianity [remainder of title illegible].

385. Thomas Taylor, God's [Controversy With England?] Virture [broadside?].

386. Jacob Telner, A Treatise Showing the Many Gross Absurdities and Pernicious Errours that Naturally Follow from the False Glosses Upon the . . . Chapter to the Romans by a Member of the Religious Society of Universal Love. *

Pastorius also referred to Thomas Budd but did not identify which of Budd's works he was citing.

Table 1

Distribution of Publication Dates of Quaker Publications:

Pastorius' Bibliography and the Universe of Quaker Publications

Publication Years Number of Publications

Pastorius' Bibliography Universe of Quaker Publications

1652-1710

1648 1 ---

1652-55 24 143

1656-59 63 677

1660-64 79 881

1665-69 23 281

1670-74 25 315

1675-79 32 326

1680-84 19 385

1685-89 6 233

1690-94 20 238

1695-99 33 267

1700-10 49 62

1711-17 5 ---

Total 379 3808



Sources: Appendix to this Note; Hugh Barbour and Arthur O. Roberts, eds., Early Quaker Writings (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1973), 568-73.

Table 1

Distribution of Publication Dates of Quaker Books

Publication Years Number of Publications Universe of Quaker Books

in Pastorius' Bibliography

1648 1 ---

1652 0 2

1653 3 53

1654 5 88

1655 16 135

1656 16 132

1657 12 102

1658 14 98

1659 21 210

1660 47 278

1661 21 180

1662 3 168

1663 7 149

1664 4 106

1665 8 99

1666 5 51

1667 7 48

1668 2 46

1669 1 47

1670 9 80

1671 5 58

1672 4 47

1673 2 63

1674 5 67

1675 10 86

1676 5 90

1677 3 63

1678 5 38

1679 9 59

1680 7 72

1681 1 72

1682 4 74

1683 6 92

1684 1 77

1685 1 64

1686 1 36

1687 1 45

1688 0 39

1689 3 49

1690 3 48

1691 2 43

1692 4 62

1693 3 39

1694 8 47

1695 7 [NUC #=1695] 45

1696 6 [Wing #=1696] 58

1697 7 51

1698 4 51

1699 9 62

1700 10 1700-10 62

1701 9

1702 6

1703 6

1704 0

1705 4

1706 1

1707 3

1708 1

1709 2

1710 6

1711 1

1712 1

1713 1

1714 1

1715 0

1716 0

1717 1

list from 375-76

Robert Barclay, Baptism and the Lord's Supper Substantially Asserted (London, 1696) B724A 125 pp (A1)

John Fields, Friendly Advice in the Spirit of Love unto Believing Parents (London, 1688) 15 pp (A2)

John Tomkins, Harmony of the Old and New Testament (London, 1694)

John Tomkins, A Brief Testimony to the Great Duty of Prayer (London, 1700) 132 pp (A3A, A65)

William Chandler, Alexander Pyott, and John Hodges, et al, A Brief Apology for the Quakers (London, 1693)

John Feilds[sic] Answer to a Catechism against Quakerism Answer to B. Bird

John Elliott, Saving Grace of God, GRace of God Asserted (A6)

Ed Elys, Vindication of William Penn's Key (A7)

? Two General Epistles directed in manuscript to the Flock of God in the West of England, the one by Thomas and the other by Alexander Parker (1660) (A8)

Fruits of Retirement or Miscellaneous Poems, Moral & Devine: By Mary Mollineux (A9)

John Gratton's The Clergy Man's Pretence of Divine Right to Tithes Examined and Refuted

[in response to WW's The Clergy's Legal Right to Tithes Asserted] (A10) (already cataloged at 135)

John Gratton's A Treatise Concerning Baptism and the Lord's Supper (already cataloged at 136)

Robert Barclay, The Possibility and Necessity of the Imediate Revelation of the Spirit of God towards ye

Robert Barclay's Apology tranlated into French, for the Information of Strangers

John Matern, The Testimony of his Life and Death

J. Lawson's Treatise, relating to the Call Works and Wahes of the Ministers of Christ

John Reynolds, The Triump of God's Revenger Against the . . . Sin of wilfull premediated (A16)

Francis Lord Verulan, Viscount , Sylva Sylvarum, or Natural history in ten centuries (A17)

A Discourse touching Generation: collected out of Levinus Servius, a most learned physicians (A18)

The Vulcanors, or buring and fire-vomiting mountains, in the world, with their remarkable (A19)

The Late Travels of S. Giacano Bartha, an Italian Gentleman, into the remote Countries of the (A20)

Interious, with ... account of the laws, govewrnment, religion, ... customs

K Sanders, the Admired piece of hysiognomy, chyromancy, metoposcopy, illustated with figures (A21)

A Treatise of James and contributions very requisite for statemen (A22)

Edmund Hickeringill, HIstory of Priestcraft in three parts (A23)

Sylvani Moran, Horologiographia Optic, Universal Speculative and Practica (A30)

Zach Crofton, A Defense Against the Fear of Death (A31)

Mr. Mead's THe Almost Christian Discovered, or the false professor tryed & cast (A32)

Thomas Waton, The Godly Mans Picture drawn with a scriptural pensil (A33)

Thomas Watons A Plea for Alms, in a Sermon of the

also Heaven (A34A)

Ralph Venning, Sins Sinfulness

R. Steedman, Sober Singularity

J. Maynards, A Memento to Young men and Old (A37)

Thomas White, A Little Book for Little Children

Method of Mediation (A38a)

John Beaumont, Treatise of Spirits, Apparitions, Witchcrafts and other Magical Practices (1700) (A39)

The Athenian Spiy and the whoe art of amour in all it Intrigues (A40)

Wits Cabinet, or a companion for young men and ladies (A41)

The Pleasures of Matrimony, intermixed with variety of merry and delightful stories (A42)

Laurence Schard, A General History of England from the first entrance of julius Ceasar

RH, Anglers Sure Guide: Or Angling Improved (A44)

Art of Prudence, or a Companion for Men of Sense (1705) (A45)

Samuel Puffendork's History of Europe

Wm Temples, A Survey of the Constitutions and Interests of the Empire, Sweden, Denmark, Spain, HOlland

with their Reliation to England in the YEar 1677 (A47)

An Essay upon the Original and Nautre of Government

An essay upon the advancement of trades

upon the excess of grief (London, 1693) (A47-49)

Henry Mason, Hearing and doing the ready way to Blessedness (A50)

The Cure of Causes, Or a Short Discourse declaring the condition of Worldly Cares (A51)

Hurst, The Descent of Authority, or the Magistrates Patent from Heaven (A52)

Joseph Medes, Apostate of the Latter Times

Clavis Apocaliphica (A53a)

The works of that memorable and ancient servant of christ stephen crisp (already cataloged at __) (A61)

Truths Innocency and Simplicity Shining through the Conversion Gospel ... Thomas Taylor (already cataloged at __) (A62)

Truths Vindication, or a gentle stroke to wipe off the foul aspersions and misrepsentations cast ... called quakers both with respect to their principle (already cataloged at 18 Eliz Bathhurst) (A63)

Mercy covering the Judgment Seat, and the life and light triumphing over death and darkness... Richard Claridge (already in catolog) (A64)

The Creed Forgers Detected in Reply to a pamphlet false called the quakers creed (A69)

Some Observations on the Remarks upon the Quakers: or the late Priests envy detected and his languishing church proved ineffectual (A70)

John Field, The Weakness of goerge keiths reasons for renouncing quakerism (A71)

Robert Bridgman, Rasons for leaving the quakers (upon examination) proved unreasonable

Daniel Philips, Proteus Redivius: or the Tower of Turners hall truly represented (A73)

The Christianity of the People called Quakers asserted by George Keith: or the new sworn reason

Anguis Flagellature: or a switch (already in cat)

The Universality of the love of god asserted in a Testimony to the free grace (A76)

A light shingin out of hte darkness with a brief apology for the quakers taht they are no ... magistracy (A78)

Joseph Wyeth Remakrs on Dr. Bray's Memorial (A79)

Benjamin Cooke His Honesty the truest policy (1700) (A80)

England's Monarch: ORa Relation of the most remarkable tranascations from Julius Caesar (A81)

The History of the two late Kings Charles II and of the most observable passages and the secret French and Popism in those times (A82)

The wars in England, Scotland and Ireland and the Tryal of K. Charles I at large with his

Historical Remakrs of the antient and present state of london (a84)

Admirable Curiosities and wanders in England, Scotland, Ireland, Rare Occurances from many

The Unfortunate ... of England exemplified? in the fala falls of Peice ?, Thomas Cromwell (A86)

The History fo the Kingdom of Scotland (A87)

A view of the English acquisitions in Guineas of hte east Indies intermixt with many passages two journeys to Jerusalem (A88)

Extraordinary adventurers of several famous men... (A89)

Wonderful Prodigies of Judgment and mercy discovered in above 300 memorable histories (A90)

Unparalled ... yhr svyiond labours of mankind displayed in near 400 .... (A91)

Kingdom of Darkness, or the history of demons, specters, withces, apparitions, and other ... (A92)

Miracles of nature and art in two parts

the general history of earth quakes from the creation to this time

martyers in flames or popery in its true colours (A95)

female grievances proving that women as well as men are equally desirious of propagating their kind ./.

Winter evenings entertainments in two parts (A97)

Young Man's Calling, or the whole duty of youths (99)

Dr. Gull's essay twoards an amendment of the last English translation of the Bible

Hugh Broughans Consent of Scripture

Godwyn's Moses ansd Aaron

Cradock's Harmony of hte four Evangelists with his Apostolical History (A102)

Pastorius was probably not thinking about Quaker authors when he likened a desire for glory and honor with "the ambition of Authors, who aspire to make their names celebrious by printing books, we dare not properly call pamphlets, because they are come forth in folio sundry tomes." Entry 37, "Bee Hive."

386. Daniel Phillips, Vindiciae Veritatis: or, An Occasional Defence of the Principles and Practices of the People Called Quakers. In Answer to John Stillingfleets Mis-Called, Seasonable Advice Concerning Quakers (London, 1703) 260 pp. 2 Smith 407.

1.

1. For introductions to the role of printed media in early America, see David Hall, Cultures of Print: Essays in the History of the Book (Amherst, 1996); Mary Sarah Bilder, "The Lost Lawyer: Legal Literacy and Legal Development in Rhode Island, 1650-1700" (unpublished manuscript) (proposing the concept of legal literacy).

2.

2. Two studies detail Pastorius' life particularly well. See Michael Learned, The Life of Francis Daniel Pastorius (Philadelphia, 1908); John David Weaver, "Francis Daniel Pastorius (1651-c.1720): Early Life in Germany with Glimpses of His Removal to Pennsylvania," (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Davis, 1985).

3.

3. Francis Daniel Pastorius, "Bee Stock or Hive," Ms. Am. 1, Special Collections, Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania, 227 (hereinafter, Bee Hive).

4.

4. See Marianne S. Wokeck, "Francis Daniel Pastorius," Craig S. Horle and Marianne S. Wokeck, eds., Biographical Dictionary of Pennsylvania Legislators, 1682-1700 (Philadelphia, 1991), 586-90.

5.

5. Pastorius' published writings are Four Boasting Disputers of this World Briefly Rebuked (New York, 1697); A New Primer (New York, 1698); Umständige Geographische Beschreibung (Frankfurt, 1701); Vier Kleine Doch Ungemeine Büchen (Germantown, 1690); Disputatio inauguralis de rasure documentorum . . . (Altdorf, 1676).

6.

6. For a complete account of Pastorius' writings, see Weaver, "Francis Daniel Pastorius," 466-71; Wokeck, "Francis Daniel Pastorius," 590 (calling manuscript the "Bee Hive").

7.

7. Pastorius, "Bee Hive." Three monographs have extensively mined Pastorius' writings, particularly the Bee Hive. See Learned, Life of Pastorius; DeElla Victoria Tomms, "The Literary and Cultural Background of Francis Daniel Pastorius" (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1958); Weaver, "Francis Daniel Pastorius."

8.

8. "Bee Hive," 55; Francis Daniel Pastorius, "The Young Country Clerk's Collection," Ms. Am. 63, Special Collections, Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania, title page.

9.

9. See Learned, Life of Pastorius, 287-93 (listing books that Pastorius owned).

10.

10. "Bee Hive," 63 (mentioning borrowing Roger L'Estrange, Seneca's Morals by way of Abstract (London, 6th. ed 1693)); J. William Frost, The Quaker Family in Colonial America (New York, 1973) 11 (discussing Quaker lending libraries); J. William Frost, "Unlikely Controversialists: Caleb Pusey and George Keith," Quaker History 64 (1976), 16-32 (discussing pamphlets printed in reaction to Keithian Controversy); Edwin Wolf, The Book Culture of a Colonial American City (Oxford, 1988) (documenting the existence of a wide variety of books in early Philadelphia). See also Toms, "Intellectual and Literary Background of Pastorius," 150, 152-54 (suggesting that Pastorius borrowed heavily from the libraries of Samuel Carpenter, James Logan, Isaac Norris, William Penn, Robert Preston, Griffith Owen, and others).

11.

11. The majority of the bibliography appears in the "Bee Hive" at pages 51-67; it is supplemented, at pages 375-76 and 380-81. The entire bibliography lists 1022 books. See Lyman W. Riley, "Books from the 'Bee Hive' Manuscript of Francis Daniel Pastorius," Quaker History 81 (1994), 116.

12.

12. The list of Quaker books appears at pages 51-55 and in a supplement, at pages 375-76, of the Bee Hive. The supplement, compiled after Pastorius' initial list, duplicates some of the citations in the main bibliography. He provided much sparser bibliographic information for books in the supplement than he did for books in the main bibliography. Moreover, although the supplement purports to catalog books written by Quakers, it includes some works written by non-Quakers, such as Samuel Puffendorf. Because the supplement was not central to Pastorius' initial plan and was compiled later than most of the Bee Hive, this essay omits references to books appearing only in the supplement. Books cited in both the main bibliography and the supplement are included.

13.

13. See Learned, Life of Pastorius, 287-93; Riley, "Books from the 'Bee Hive' Manuscript," 116-29 (describing Riley's transcription of Pastorius' bibliography, which is available at the libraries of Haverford College and the University of Pennsylvania). Victoria Toms also made extensive use of Pastorius' references to books in her dissertation. See Toms, "Intellectual and Literary Background of Pastorius," 139-98. See also Mildred N. Hirsch & Dorothy G. Harris, "From the Library of Pastorius," Bulletin of the Friends Historical Association 42 (1953), 76-84 (describing pamphlets in Pastorius' library).

14.

14. See Richard Vann, "Quakerism: Made in America?" in World of William Penn, 157-72; David Korbin, "The Saving Remnant: Intellectual Sources of Change and Decline in Colonial Quakerism, 1690-1810" (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1968), 306 (employing phrase "Quaker cosmology" in describing shifting ideas in eighteenth century and using published works to recover that cosmology); Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, 1956), 99 (discussing "religious cosmology" of seventeenth-century Virginia). David Hall has provided a suggestive discussion of ways in which the abundant religious literature in New England shaped the development of religious consciousness. See David Hall, "The World of Print and Collective Mentality in Seventeenth-Century New England," in John Higham and Paul Conklin, eds., New Directions in American Intellectual History (Baltimore, 1979), 166-80.

15.

15. Hugh Barbour and Arthur O. Roberts, eds., Early Quaker Writings (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1973), 573.

16.

16. J. William Frost, "Quaker Books in Colonial Pennsylvania," Quaker History 78 (1991), 1 (relating availability of Quaker books to "unified transatlantic culture").

17.

17. See George Whitehead, The Case of the Suffering People of God (London, 1664); William Penn, Continued Cry of the Oppressed for Justice being a Farther Account of the Late Unjust and Cruel Proceedings of Unreasonable Men Against Persons and Estates of the Many People call'd Quakers (London, 1675).

18.

18. See Robert Berd, To the Parliament of England: A Representation of the Outrages and Cruelties Acted Upon the Servants of Christ, At Two Meetings at Sabridgworth in Hartford-shire (London, 1659); Charles Harriss, The Wolf Under Sheeps-Clothing Discovered, or the Spirit of Cain, Appearing in the Bishop of Liechfield (London, 1669); Charles Harriss, A Scriptural Chronicle of Satan's Incendiaries: viz, Hard-Hearted Persecutors and Malicioius Informers with their Work, Wages, and Ends (London, 1670).

19.

19. See George Bishop, New England Judged, not by Man's But by the Spirit of the Lord (London, 1661); A Brief Narrative of the Sufferings of the People Called Quakers who were put to Death at Boston in New England (New York, 1700).

20.

20. Law Entry, "Bee Hive" (citing William Penn, The Peoples Ancient Liberties Asserted in the Trial of William Mead and William Penn (London, 1673), 31).

21.

21. See, e.g., E.B. [Edward Billing or Edward Burrough?], An Alarm to all Flesh: . . . Warning (once more) from God, unto all such Rulers, Teachers, and People in England who are, or may be, Persecutors about Religion and Worship (London, 1663); George Fox, A Warning to All Merchants of London . . . to Norrish the Poor (London, 1658); Francis Howgill, The Measuring Rod of the Lord Stretched Forth Over all Nations and the Line of True Judgment laid to the Rulers Thereof (London, 1658).

22.

22. See George Fox, An Instruction to Judges and Lawyers (London, 1659), 11; Magistrates Entry, "Bee Hive" (quoting Fox, Instruction to Judges, 11).

23.

23. See William Penn, Fruits of Solitude (London, 1693), reprinted in A Collection of the Works of William Penn 2 vols. (London, 1723), I: 818, 823 ("don't Ruin him to get that, which it will not ruin thee to lose").

24.

24. See Conventicle Act, 16 Car. II, chap. 1; Horle, Quakers and English Criminal Justice, 101-59; Thomas Rudyard, The Case of Protestant Dissenters of Late Persecuted in Old Statutes Made Against Papists (London, 1680); Richard Farnworth, Christian Religious Meetings Allowed By Liturgies Are No Seditious Conventicles (London, 1664).

25.

25. See George Fox, That All Might See who they were that had a Command: and Did Pay Tythes; and who they were that had a Law to Receive them (London, 1657); Francis Howgill, The Great Case of the Tythes and Forced Maintenance Once More Reviewed (London, 1665); Anonymous, The Ancient Testimony of the Primitive Christians and Maryters of Jesus Christ, Revived Agt. Tythes: Or, a Relation of the Sufferings of William Dobson (London, 1680).

26.

26. See George Fox, The Pearl Found in England, This is for the Poor Distressed . . . . from the Royal Seed of God (London, 1660); George Fox, The Papists Strength, Principles, and Doctrines . . . Answered and Confuted (London, 1658); William Penn, Christian Quaker and His Divine Testimony Stated and Vindicated from Scripture, Reason and Authority (London, 1699).

27.

27. Hannah Hill, A Legacy for Children being some of the Last Expressions and Dying Sayings of Hannah Hill, Jr. (Philadelphia, 1717).

28.

28. See James Naylor, Milk for Babes and Meat for Strong Men . . . being the Breathings of the Spirit Through His Servant James Naylor (London, 1661). See also Richard Hawkins, A Brief Narrative of the Life and Death of that Ancient Servant of the Lord and his People, Gilbert Lately (London, 1707).

29.

29. Elizabeth Bathhurst, Truth's Vindication (London, 1679) Wing B1137. See also George Fox, The Priests and Professors Catechism: For them to Try Their Spirits (London, 1657); George Fox, Priests Fruit Made Manifest and the Vanity of the World Discovered (London, 1657).

30.

30. Compare Frost, "Unlikely Controversialists," 16-32 (analyzing dispute as one of religious doctrine) with Jon Butler, "'Gospel Order Improved': The Keithian Schism and the Exercise of Quaker Ministerial Authority," William and Mary Quarterly 31 (1974), 431-52 (concluding that dispute centered on ministerial authority). On the repercussions of the controversy, see Jon Butler, "The Records of the First 'America' Denomination: The Keithians of Pennsylvania, 1694-1700," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 120 (1996), 89-91.

31.

31. See Caleb Pusey, Satan's Harbinger Encountered (Philadelphia, 1700).

32.

32. In the same entry on Magistrates where Pastorius cited Clark's pamphlet, he cited Caleb Pusey's Satan's Harbinger (Philadelphia, 1698), 62-63 to show that "It never was against our Principles to be concerned in outward government." Magistrates Entry, "Bee Hive." For a further exploration of Pastorius' legal ideas and the treatises he used, see Alfred L. Brophy, "'Ingenium est Fateri per quos profeceris': Francis Daniel Pastorius' Young Country Clerk's Collection and Anglo-American Legal Literature, 1682-1716," University of Chicago Law School Roundtable 3 (1996), 637, 647,-48, 652-65.

33.

33. See, e.g., Elizabeth W. Fisher, "'Prophesies and Revelations': German Cabbalists in Early Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 109 (1985), 299-333. Professor Fisher's reconstruction of the ideas of the early German settlers utilizes the writings of a few of the Pietist leaders in Pennsylvania with insightful analysis of what is known about Pietism as it existed in Germany. Such a combination leads to provocative speculation about the ideas of the common people. See Jon Butler, "Religion, Astrology, and the Early American Religious Heritage, 1600-1760," American Historical Review 84 (April 1979), 317-46; Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of British North America (New York, 1986), 123-26.

34.

34. See Frederick B. Tolles, Meeting House and Counting House (Chapel Hill, 1948); Frost, Quaker Family; Sally Schwartz, A Mixed Multitude (New York, 1987). See also Melvin Endy, William Penn and Early Quakerism (New Haven, 1973).

35.

35. See Wolf, Book Culture of a Colonial American City; Tolles, Meeting House, 161-204; Frost, Quaker Family, 6, 30-45, 99-100; Edwin Wolf, The Library of James Logan (Philadelphia, 1968). The best of the recent scholarship combines quantitative study of court and tax records with analyses of the ideas of early Pennsylvanians. For example, William Offutt's Of "Good Laws" and "Good Men": Society and Law in the Delaware Valley, 1680-1710 (Champaign-Urbana, Ill., 1995), has generated insights into the nature of law by combining detailed quantitative study of litigants with examination of Quaker writings on justice.

36.

36. See Frost, "Quaker Books in Colonial Pennsylvania," 2.

37.

37. Frost, Quaker Family, 30.